The remaining dust cloud from the solar nebula slowed down the objects orbiting the sun, as the wind resistance slowed the car.
An international research team led by scientists from the Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich) in Zurich has studied iron samples from the nuclei of a group of meteorites that have fallen to Earth at various times, revealing part of the early history of the solar system. Formation of planets.
The first sun
About 4.5 billion years ago, when the Sun was still a young star, before the Earth and other planets formed, the Sun was surrounded by dust and rock fragments known as the “Circumstellar Disk”.
Later, as they merged, these small pieces of rock became the building blocks for many adjacent planets.
But some of them were in the shape of small asteroids, i.e. found in an area of the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, and when parts of those asteroids fall to Earth as meteors, they still have a deep history of the solar system. .
And step Study Published by the team in the journal Nature Astronomy, the team took samples from the nuclei of 18 different iron meteorites, analyzed them with a “mass spectrometer” and obtained a “mass spectrometer” of the elements palladium, silver and platinum.
Isotopes are atoms of the same chemical element that have the same atomic number (i.e., the same number of protons in the nucleus), but differ in atomic mass due to the different number of neutrons in the nucleus of each.
Very old history
Studies show that only a few million years after the formation of the solar system did the metal nuclei of the asteroids heat up and then as they cooled, one of the silver isotopes accumulated inside the asteroid. Radiation decay.
As the observed cooling process accelerated, the researchers observed intense collisions between smaller asteroids during that period, which led to the asteroid’s insulating rock mantle being severed and exposing its metal core to the cold of space.
According to the study, between 7.8 and 11.7 million years after the formation of the solar system, the team was able to determine the timing of these collisions with greater accuracy than ever before. At that moment the cloud around the sun was hitting everything.
Confusion before construction
As stated in Press release According to the company, the researchers said that most of the confusion was caused by the decay of the Sun’s nebula, a remnant of the Sun’s gas cloud.
And the word “nebula” literally means something that has no clear shape, and nebulae are actually like that, a group of gaseous and dusty clouds scattered across the galaxy, and if the nebula is high in hydrogen gas they allow new stars to be born in large nurseries containing hundreds of stars. After becoming stars, everyone leaves the team that was born with him.
For example, we can observe something similar today by looking at the Pleiades star cluster of several hundred stars about 150 light-years away from us. When we look at Pleiades in telescopes, we see some star clouds. These stars fed.
Within millions of years, this cloud will be removed from the same stars by strong stellar winds. So when we look at Pleiades, we also look at the past of the sun 4 and a half billion years ago.
According to a new study, a dusty cloud remaining from the solar nebula slows down objects around the sun, similar to wind resistance slowing a car’s motion.
But due to intense solar wind and radiation, the cloud disintegrated over time, as is now the case with Plato, which allowed meteorites to accelerate and collide with each other for millions of years, and the insane chaotic collision between asteroids in that contemporary form later led to the appearance of planets.
Concerns about the power of the next generation of controversial artificial intelligence technology are growing in Britain, between its supporters and detractors, from criminals and terrorists using the technology to achieve their goals, to frequent scenes in sci-fi movies. About a machine escaping human control.
The UK is hosting a summit on AI security in November, and British officials are touring the world ahead of the summit.
According to The Guardian, fears are widespread that criminals or terrorists could use artificial intelligence to accomplish their extremist goals and cause mass death, and some around British Prime Minister Rishi Sunak worry that the technology will soon become powerful enough to help. Individuals develop biological weapons that are out of bounds.
“The purpose is to warn against this,” said a person familiar with the summit talks Artificial Intelligence Risks“Downing Street is paying attention at the moment.”
Frontier AI is a term used to refer to models of artificial intelligence that are dangerous enough to endanger human life, the newspaper noted.
Sunak warned months ago about the dangers posed by artificial intelligence and urged the international community to adopt safeguards to prevent its misuse.
Recent developments in artificial intelligence technology have raised fears among officials. Last year, an artificial intelligence tool was able to suggest 40,000 different potentially lethal biomolecules, some of which were similar to VX, in just 6 hours. .
Earlier this year, researchers found that ChatGPT can lie to a human to achieve a specific goal. The AI-powered chatbot convinced a person to solve a “captcha” tool designed to take down online bots after telling them to a human. Visually impaired and needs help accessing the website.
Government sources fear that a criminal or terrorist could use artificial intelligence to help prepare the components of a biological weapon before sending them to a lab, where they can be mixed and shipped without any human supervision, a risk some believe will soon increase dramatically. , companies are already spending hundreds of millions of pounds. Sterling is looking for more powerful processors to train the next generation of AI tools.
Another concern is the emergence of “artificial general intelligence,” which refers to an artificially intelligent system capable of autonomously performing any task at or above human level—and which could pose an existential threat to humans in years to come.
On the other hand, the existential risk approach to general AI has been criticized by AI experts, who argue that the threat is overstated. Last week, a senior tech executive told US lawmakers that the notion of uncontrollable public AI was… “fiction”.
Several world leaders, including Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and French President Emmanuel Macron, are expected to attend the summit. The UK has invited China to participate.
The British government confirmed that the summit would focus on risks such as the misuse of artificial intelligence to develop biological weapons or electronic attacks, and the emergence of advanced systems that escape human control.
He said in a statement: “There are two areas that the summit will focus on in particular: the risks of misuse, for example when new AI capabilities help a bad actor in biological or cyber attacks, and the risks of losing control. The risks may arise from the advanced systems we want to “counter it”.
Sunak warned months ago about the dangers posed by artificial intelligence and urged the international community to adopt safeguards to prevent its misuse.
Downing Street is reportedly spending £100m on a new artificial intelligence team. The United Kingdom to evaluate them before using them more widely. .
A Downing Street spokesman said AI has “huge potential to transform every aspect of life and the Frontier AI Taskforce has been established to ensure technology is developed safely and responsibly”. Potential risks.
An international team led by researchers at the British Wellcome Sanger Institute has revealed a new drug target that could act as an alternative treatment for kidney cancer if doctors don’t recommend surgery. According to the results of a study published in the journal Nature Communications (Monday), this rare cancerous form of kidney tumor is called Renin tumor, and its complete genetic code has been understood for the first time.
Reninoma is one of the rarest cancers in humans, with only about 100 cases reported worldwide. Although it can usually be treated with surgery, it can cause severe high blood pressure and develop into malignant tumors that can spread.
There are still no medical treatments for kidney tumors, as treatment management only involves surgery. Before the results of the latest study came out, it was not known what genetic error caused these types of tumors.
According to the study’s co-principal investigator, Dr. Sam Bagadi, Wellcome Senior Research Fellow at the Wellcome Sanger Institute: “The significance of our results is that we have succeeded in discovering the essence of this type of tumor. Based on the fact that it is so rare, there have been no previous studies on it.
He added to Asharq Al-Awsat: “Not only have we been able to understand the genetic code of a kidney tumor, but we have also shown that drugs can counteract what triggers it, and this may be important for patients whose tumors cannot be removed. through surgery.”
Researchers have identified a specific error in the genetic code of a known cancer gene called NOTCH1, which is behind the development of this rare cancer.
“This is the first time we have identified the causes of kidney tumors, and we believe our work will continue to pave the way for new treatments,” said lead study author Taryn Trescher at the Wellcome Sanger Institute.
The team has already studied two cancer samples, one from a young adult and the other from a child, using advanced genetic techniques. Their findings suggest that existing drugs that actually target this gene could be used as a potential solution for treating kidney tumors in patients for whom surgery is not a viable option.
Dr Tansina Chowdhury, lead researcher on the study at Great Ormond Street Hospital in the UK, explained: “Rare forms of kidney cancer known as renal tumors do not respond to traditional anti-cancer treatments. “Currently the only known treatment is surgery.” She added: “There is a specific, well-known gene that drives this rare cancer. Our study shows that the studied gene has “If we use drugs that are already known to affect this gene, we can deal with it without the need for invasive medical technology like surgery.”
Here Bahjati said: “Rare cancers are a huge challenge for research and analysis. Patients with other types of tumors may not benefit from them. “But here is a powerful example of cutting-edge science that is changing our understanding of an extremely rare type of tumor: a discovery that could have immediate clinical benefits for patients.” He added: “We will continue to study these extremely rare tumors to understand their genetic code, which we hope will reveal more new therapeutic approaches.”
We begin our tour of British newspapers with Amy Williams in New York and Miles McCormick in Calgary at the Financial Times on what they describe as deep tensions and divisions over the oil and gas industry’s role in combating climate change. Recent events in New York, US and Calgary, Canada this week cast doubt on the likelihood of an agreement at the upcoming United Nations COP28 conference.
According to the article, when world leaders and senior officials meet in New York in ten weeks ahead of the United Nations’ COP28 climate summit, there is a deep divide between those who support and those who urge the expansion of fossil fuel use. Stopping all forms of growth and expansion is critical to achieving stability in the world.
In December, the UN The authors quoted Dan Jorgensen, Denmark’s minister for development cooperation and global climate policy, who is leading discussions on new climate targets that could be agreed at the climate change conference COP28, as saying: “Countries agree that we must move. Move forward on this issue.” “But the bad news is that we’re far from reaching an agreement. We need to address the larger problem of burning fossil fuels.”
According to the article, tensions between the world’s nations related to the precise meaning of “phasing out” of fossil fuels and whether this would allow the expansion of carbon capture technologies, also known as mitigation, have failed climate summits. In subsequent years to reach an agreement.
The newspaper reported that French President Emmanuel Macron and Kenyan President William Rudo along with 17 other leaders signed a letter last week in which they stressed that “mitigation technology cannot be used to expand the use of fossil fuels”.
The article also reported that European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said the EU’s goal of “phasing out fossil fuels before 2050” would require major polluters to come on board.
As developing countries push to finance green energy systems, US climate envoy John Kerry has attacked new coal plant developments in Asia, where China and India are ramping up production. Meanwhile, oil company leaders gathered on the outskirts of Calgary, Alberta, the heart of Canada’s oil industry, for a very different conversation.
The Financial Times highlights how some 500 senior industry officials, including ExxonMobil CEO Darren Woods, warned of the dangers of the rush away from fossil fuels at the World Petroleum Congress, a biennial oil and gas industry conference.
Amin Nasser, chief executive of Saudi Aramco, the world’s biggest oil producer, told the delegation, which included a large presence from Canada and Saudi Arabia: “I see many flaws in the current transitional approach. It’s ignored.”
“Premature cessation of conventional energy endangers energy security and affordability priorities, and as the recent energy crisis — exacerbated by the conflict in Ukraine — has shown, the world teeters if these realities are ignored,” al-Nasser’s speech said.
According to the authors, fossil fuel industry executives who are expected to attend will fight against production cuts before 2050 when world leaders head to the COP28 conference in December, hoping to reach an agreement to maintain the goal of limiting global warming.
“This is how Putin can be defeated.”
We return to the Telegraph newspaper, which published an article by Hamish de Breton-Gordon, in which the West called for the urgent delivery of attack weapons to Ukraine, emphasizing that NATO countries have the ability to crush the “tsar”, as he described it. It is.
The writer said that the West should provide Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky with the necessary weapons, and in this way Russian President Vladimir Putin would be defeated.
In his article, the author sets a timetable of more than 12 months – at most – for Ukraine to defeat Russia, but he points out that a stalemate is felt in the air regarding Kiev’s armaments. The West faces the risk of losing ground, while Ukrainian tanks appear to be breaking through the defensive lines designed by former Russian general Sergei Churovykin. According to Gordon, they rushed towards Russia.
Author Gordon says that Poland’s suspension of arms supplies to Ukraine is a matter that will make headlines in Polish local newspapers ahead of next month’s elections, but is echoed in the international press as a sign of “Ukraine fatigue” and its impact on Poles.
The writer emphasized the importance of Polish engineering and logistical support to help the Ukrainian army and maintain its advance, but in the agricultural economy, unlike many industrialized countries in the West, Poland’s peasants had high reservations and feared the influx of cheap Ukrainian grain. In the European market, as a result of the Russian occupation, the grain issue and placing it at the center of the conflict.
Elections can lead politicians to adopt a course that is consistent with their electoral interests, and not necessarily a moral line, which applies to the United Kingdom and the United States, which will hold elections next year, and apply. Poland, according to the article.
The author says: “Western weapons are slowly changing the course of events in favor of Ukraine, but the pace of events was slow and very small, because it took six months to supply Ukraine with precision artillery, and 12 months to supply it with tanks, and two years to acquire F-16 fighter jets. Had all this happened in the first 12 months of the invasion, most analysts, myself included, would agree that the war would have been over, and politicians around the world would not have struggled with the moral question of whether to do the right thing. For themselves or for peace in Europe?
The writer adds that since Ukrainian artillery units are already trained on multi-barrel launchers, the West, and especially the US, could give a major boost to the Ukrainian offensive by deploying the Atacms long-range artillery system without delay. MRLS” was used to launch these precision missiles. Up to a range of 300 kilometers, it will give the Ukrainians the ability to destroy Russian artillery in Crimea, and help light and heavy military forces achieve victory this time.
Retaking Crimea, a territory important to both sides, would end the war, topple Putin and deprive Russia of a strong military that has helped threaten the West for nearly a decade, the writer concludes.
“Women should not be forced to justify men’s attacks.”
We conclude the newspaper description with an article published by the British Times by Jenny Russell entitled “Women should not be pushed to justify men’s assaults”.
The writer discussed what she described as women’s boredom with a reduced choice between “insulting men or risking their personal safety.”
In her essay, two friends stunned her by defending the much-talked-about public figure Crispin Odey, who faced accusations of sexually abusing women just days before reports of allegations against Russell Brand — allegations he vehemently denies. , allegations that Odi had previously vehemently denied.
The writer highlighted the opinions of two of his friends, one of whom said: “They know what they’re doing, if they don’t like it, they should have found another job,” the other said sarcastically: “Girls he went home! They know what it’s like.”
The author explains that the common assumptions underlying these ideas are repulsive and impose impossible odds on women.
In her article, Jenny Russell, women are expected to treat men whom they know as professionally and socially trustworthy, and to treat them with respect.
It is not permissible for a woman to publicly refuse to ride in an elevator with her colleague, or to decline her neighbor’s invitation to ride in his car, or to avoid a late-night coffee with her boyfriend. She fears sexual assault.
He explained that this creates an atmosphere of shame and anger for men, because women who say it openly are humiliated or fired, as it is seen as an accusation and suspicion of the opposite man’s intentions. Among them.
On the other hand, a woman who has been assaulted, many immediately view her behavior through a completely different lens. It is necessary for her to expect that any man may be a sex predator and she should be wary of him and take necessary precautions.
“What did she think she was doing when she was alone with a man at home, office or hotel? What did she expect?” There will be questions.
It’s an old and unforgiving view: women who trust men or are forced to do so are seen as complicit or guilty because weakness is reframed as consent.
The author says that the presence of these two contradictory behaviors of women at the same time is used by some predatory men to trap them, these men deliberately exploit the mystique of women. Avoiding traps while maintaining a social presence is what women try to do, but it is an exhausting or dangerous process.
In many fields, women have to make a tragic choice: either quit their jobs or accept harassment as the price of their lives, the author says.