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Among them are 11 scientists, including Arabs Science



Among them are 11 scientists, including Arabs  Science

Announced Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters Today, Wednesday, June 1, 2022, the names of the winners of the global “Cowley Prize” will be announced.

Prize winners:

1. Connie Airtz (Belgium), Jன்rgen Christensen Tolskart (Denmark) and Roger Ulrich (USA) were awarded the Cowley Prize for Astronomy for their research contributions that revolutionized our understanding of the interior of stars.

2. David Alara (USA), Ralph Nosso (USA), Jacob Zakiv (Israel) and George Whitesight (USA) were awarded the Cowley Prize for Nanoscience – at the molecular level – for allowing unprecedented control of surfaces. Geometry for surface properties.

3. Jean-Louis Mandel (France), Harry Orr, Christopher Walsh (USA) and Hoda Chokby (Lebanon / USA) received the Cowley Prize in Neuroscience for their discovery of the genetic basis of many brain disorders.

The award is given every two years to scientists who have transformed our understanding of the larger universe (astronomical physics), smaller universe (nanoscience), and complex universe (neuroscience). Each winning category will receive a $ 1 million prize, a gold medal and a certificate of appreciation. The winners will receive their awards at a ceremony in the Norwegian capital, Oslo, on September 6.

Preface to the Nobel Prize

The award was first presented in 2008. So far, 65 scientists have won this prestigious award, and 10 of these scientists have since won the Nobel Prize in Science.

எ Erdem Badapodian and David Julius, recipients of the Cowley Prize for Neuroscience in 2020. Both scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2021 for their discovery of “temperature and touch receptors”.
ஜெ Jennifer Dowdna and Emmanuel Sarpentier, recipients of the 2018 Cowley Prize for Nanoscience. Both scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2020 for their contribution to the development of CRISPR-Cas9 technology for genetic editing.
கி Gip Thorne and Rainer Weiss, recipients of the 2016 Cowley Prize in Astronomy. Both scientists were awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of “gravitational waves”.

It is noteworthy that the Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters receives nominations for this award from international academies of heavyweights and other scientific institutions such as the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the French Academy of Sciences, the Max Blanc Society in Germany, and the National Academy. Science in the United States and the Royal Society in the United Kingdom.

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The Academy appoints 3 independent committees to review and discuss the recommendations received and then submits to the Academy the recommendations that have won their consensus.

The Cowley Prize was established in 2005 by a joint project of the Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters, the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research and the Cowley Foundation. The Cowley Prize is one of the earliest activities initiated by the Foundation with the aim of honoring scientists and appreciating renowned research. In 2008 he was awarded the first prize.

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Finding the genetic causes of a rare cancer affecting the kidney



Finding the genetic causes of a rare cancer affecting the kidney

An international team led by researchers at the British Wellcome Sanger Institute has revealed a new drug target that could act as an alternative treatment for kidney cancer if doctors don’t recommend surgery. According to the results of a study published in the journal Nature Communications (Monday), this rare cancerous form of kidney tumor is called Renin tumor, and its complete genetic code has been understood for the first time.

Reninoma is one of the rarest cancers in humans, with only about 100 cases reported worldwide. Although it can usually be treated with surgery, it can cause severe high blood pressure and develop into malignant tumors that can spread.

There are still no medical treatments for kidney tumors, as treatment management only involves surgery. Before the results of the latest study came out, it was not known what genetic error caused these types of tumors.

Reninoma is one of the rarest cancerous tumors in humans (Public Domain).

According to the study’s co-principal investigator, Dr. Sam Bagadi, Wellcome Senior Research Fellow at the Wellcome Sanger Institute: “The significance of our results is that we have succeeded in discovering the essence of this type of tumor. Based on the fact that it is so rare, there have been no previous studies on it.

He added to Asharq Al-Awsat: “Not only have we been able to understand the genetic code of a kidney tumor, but we have also shown that drugs can counteract what triggers it, and this may be important for patients whose tumors cannot be removed. through surgery.”

Researchers have identified a specific error in the genetic code of a known cancer gene called NOTCH1, which is behind the development of this rare cancer.

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“This is the first time we have identified the causes of kidney tumors, and we believe our work will continue to pave the way for new treatments,” said lead study author Taryn Trescher at the Wellcome Sanger Institute.

The team has already studied two cancer samples, one from a young adult and the other from a child, using advanced genetic techniques. Their findings suggest that existing drugs that actually target this gene could be used as a potential solution for treating kidney tumors in patients for whom surgery is not a viable option.

Dr Tansina Chowdhury, lead researcher on the study at Great Ormond Street Hospital in the UK, explained: “Rare forms of kidney cancer known as renal tumors do not respond to traditional anti-cancer treatments. “Currently the only known treatment is surgery.” She added: “There is a specific, well-known gene that drives this rare cancer. Our study shows that the studied gene has “If we use drugs that are already known to affect this gene, we can deal with it without the need for invasive medical technology like surgery.”

Here Bahjati said: “Rare cancers are a huge challenge for research and analysis. Patients with other types of tumors may not benefit from them. “But here is a powerful example of cutting-edge science that is changing our understanding of an extremely rare type of tumor: a discovery that could have immediate clinical benefits for patients.” He added: “We will continue to study these extremely rare tumors to understand their genetic code, which we hope will reveal more new therapeutic approaches.”

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Climate change: Saudi Arabia warns against rush to abandon traditional fuels – Financial Times



Climate change: Saudi Arabia warns against rush to abandon traditional fuels – Financial Times

image source, Good pictures

We begin our tour of British newspapers with Amy Williams in New York and Miles McCormick in Calgary at the Financial Times on what they describe as deep tensions and divisions over the oil and gas industry’s role in combating climate change. Recent events in New York, US and Calgary, Canada this week cast doubt on the likelihood of an agreement at the upcoming United Nations COP28 conference.

According to the article, when world leaders and senior officials meet in New York in ten weeks ahead of the United Nations’ COP28 climate summit, there is a deep divide between those who support and those who urge the expansion of fossil fuel use. Stopping all forms of growth and expansion is critical to achieving stability in the world.

In December, the UN The authors quoted Dan Jorgensen, Denmark’s minister for development cooperation and global climate policy, who is leading discussions on new climate targets that could be agreed at the climate change conference COP28, as saying: “Countries agree that we must move. Move forward on this issue.” “But the bad news is that we’re far from reaching an agreement. We need to address the larger problem of burning fossil fuels.”

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What are the most common symptoms of breast cancer in men?



What are the most common symptoms of breast cancer in men?

Breast cancer is a disease that affects women, especially with a high number of infections, but in fact it affects men as well, and many believe that it leads to death among them.

she explained NHS The NHS in England says that 85 men die each year in Britain from breast cancer, and that the malignancy affects around 400 men annually.

The charity Breast Cancer Now also reports that “at least one person is diagnosed with the disease every day”.

According to the website “Mayo ClinicMedically, male breast cancer is “a rare cancer that begins with the growth of cells in the breast tissue of men.”

Breast cancer cells disrupt the immune system

Australian researchers announced Monday that breast cancer cells have powerfully destroyed the body’s immune system, allowing the disease to invade patients’ bones.

“Breast cancer in men usually affects older people, but it can occur at any age,” he pointed out.

Those diagnosed with “male breast cancer” at an early stage have a good chance of recovery.

What are the symptoms?

The symptoms of this disease are as follows:

A painless lump or thickening of breast tissue and changes in the skin of the breast, such as sagging, wrinkling, redness or peeling.
Changes in the nipples, such as redness or peeling, or one of the nipples turning inward.

The causes of these malignant tumors are still unclear, but doctors define “male breast cancer” as occurring when “some breast cells divide faster than healthy cells.”

Accumulated cells form a tumor, which can spread (metastasize) to nearby tissues, lymph nodes, or other parts of the body.

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According to the website “Web MedicineThe disease can be diagnosed through a clinical examination, which is done by feeling the chest area of ​​the person in search of any tumors or changes in the chest tissue, and the doctor evaluates the size, structure and depth of the tumors present.

It can be diagnosed with radiographic imaging such as X-rays or ultrasound to create clear images of the breast tissue.

Only a biopsy is used to “confirm” a diagnosis of breast cancer in men. This is done by taking a sample of the tumor tissue and examining it to confirm whether the tumor is cancerous or benign.

Treatment usually involves surgery to remove as much of the visible tumor as possible, along with some of the surrounding healthy tissue.

Other treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be recommended depending on the condition.

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