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A massive cosmic simulation ends, causing much of the universe to be recreated



A massive cosmic simulation ends, causing much of the universe to be recreated

There is an old joke among astronomy students about a question on the final exam for a cosmology course. It sounds like: “Describe the universe and give three examples.” Well, a team of researchers in Germany, the US and the UK have taken a giant leap to provide at least one concrete example from the universe.

To do this, they used a set of simulations called “MillenniumTNG”. It tracks galaxy accretion and cosmic structure over time. It also provides a new view of the standard cosmological model of the universe. It is the latest in cosmological simulations and joins ambitious efforts like the AbacusSummit project from a few years ago.

This simulation scheme takes into account as many aspects of cosmic evolution as possible. It uses simulations of ordinary (baryonic) matter (what we see in the universe). These include matter, neutrinos, and dark energy, whose mechanisms of dynamical universe formation remain unclear. It is very challenging.

Cosmic simulation

More than 120,000 SuperMUC-NG computer centers in Germany worked on the data for MillenniumTNG. This came after about a hundred million galaxies formed in a region of space about 2400 million light-years in diameter. Cosma8-Durham then worked to calculate a larger universe, but one would monitor the activity of 1 trillion simulated dark matter particles and another 10 billion massive neutrinos.

Projections of gas (top left), dark matter (top right) and starlight (bottom center) from a single chip in the massive MillenniumTNG current hydrodynamic simulation. The strip is about 35 million light-years thick. Courtesy of AMP.

The result of this numerical calculation is a simulated region of the universe that reflects the composition and distribution of galaxies. It was so large that cosmologists used it to develop hypotheses about the entire universe and its history. They can use it to probe for cracks in the standard cosmological model of the universe.

Cosmological Modeling and Prediction

Cosmologists have this basic model to explain the evolution of the universe. It goes like this: The universe consists of different types of matter. There is ordinary baryonic matter of which we are all composed, stars, planets, and galaxies. It makes up less than 5% of the “stuff” in the universe. The rest is dark matter and dark energy.

A joint model of the material distribution (with dark matter overlay) in simulations of galaxy formation by the TNG collaboration.
A joint model of the material distribution (with dark matter overlay) in simulations of galaxy formation by the TNG collaboration.

The cosmological community calls these strange cosmic conditions the “cold lambda dark matter” (LCDM, for short) model. In fact, it describes the universe very well. However, there are some contradictions. This is what simulation should help solve. The model draws on data from a variety of sources, including cosmic microwave radiation and the “cosmic web,” where galaxies are arranged in a complex web of dark matter filaments.

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What is still missing is a better understanding of what exactly dark matter is. And when it comes to dark energy, that’s a challenge. Astrophysicists and cosmologists are trying to better understand the existence of the LCDM and the great unknowns. This requires a lot of sensitive new observations from astronomers. On the other side of the coin, they also need detailed predictions of what the LCDM model actually represents. It’s a big challenge and it’s what drives the best MillenniumTNG simulations. If cosmologists can successfully simulate the universe, they can use those simulations to understand what happens in “real life.” These include the properties of galaxies in both the modern and very ancient universes.

Understanding and predicting trends in galaxies in the Universe using MillenniumTNG

MillenniumTNG simulations follow from previous simulation programs called “Millennium” and “IllustrisTNG”. The new team provides a tool to fill some of the gaps in our understanding of things like the evolution and shapes (or morphology) of galaxies.

Astronomers have long known about so-called “intrinsic galactic alignments.” It’s basically a tendency for galaxies to point their shapes in similar directions, for reasons no one really understands.

Weak gravitational lensing affects how we see galaxy alignment. MillenniumTNG simulations will allow astronomers to measure such alignments in the “real world” using simulated alignments. According to team member Ana Maria Delgado, this is a big improvement. “Perhaps our determination of the intrinsic alignment of galaxies’ orientations will help resolve the current discrepancy between the degree of material accretion inferred from the faint lens and the cosmic microwave background,” he said.

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Look at the past

Like other fields of cosmology, the MillenniumTNG team studies the very young universe through simulations. This is a time after the reionization time when the first stars were already shining brightly and the first galaxies were forming. Some of these early galaxies are so massive that they seem out of the context of the nascent universe. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) spotted them, and the question remains: How did they become so massive in such a short time after the Big Bang?

The MillenniumTNG simulation reflects this tendency for some ancient galaxies to grow larger in a shorter period of time. Typically, about 500 million years after the Big Bang. Why are these galaxies so big? Astronomer Rahul Kannan offers some ideas to explain this. He explained, “Perhaps star formation became more efficient shortly after the Big Bang, or massive stars formed at a higher rate at that time, making these galaxies unusually bright.”

Now that JWST is looking at earlier periods of cosmic history, it will be interesting to see if the simulations predict what it will find. Keenan suggests that there may be a divide between the real universe and the simulation. If this happens, it will raise another intriguing question for cosmologists about the earliest epochs of cosmological history.

The future of simulated and real space exploration

The next few decades of cosmological studies will benefit greatly from simulations like Millennium TNG. However, the quality of the simulations depends on the data they receive and the assumptions of their scientific teams. MillenniumTNG benefits from vast databases of information and the capabilities of supercomputers to process its data. According to the team’s principal investigator, Professor Volker Sprenkel of the Max Planck Institute, the simulation, which generated more than 3 petabytes of data, is a huge boon for cosmology.

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“MillenniumTNG combines the latest advances in galaxy formation simulations with the large-scale cosmic structure, allowing for better theoretical modeling of the connection of galaxies to the dark matter backbone of the Universe,” he said. “This will be very useful for advancing key questions in cosmology, such as how to deduce the neutrino mass with large-scale structural data.”

The distribution of galaxies in MillenniumTNG, where galaxies and locations are predicted as part of the simulation. Real observations of galaxies can be disturbed by Doppler shifts, which can be added to the simulation. Courtesy of AMP.

His expectations certainly match the goals of the MillenniumTNG project. The teams continue to build on the success of the IllustristicNG project, which ran hydrodynamic simulations in addition to the dark-matter-Millennium simulation developed nearly a decade ago. Group simulations have been used to study various Hungarian subjects. Includes the composition of galaxies and haloes, clusters and their distribution, patterns of galaxy formation, clusters in the early universe, these intrinsic galactic alignments, and other related topics. While they may not be able to fully define the universe (and give three examples), the MillenniumTNG team is making great progress in understanding its origin and evolution.

For more information

Looking for cracks in the standard cosmological model
MillenniumTNG project webpage

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The iPhone 15 series has 9 features that are a first for smartphones



The iPhone 15 series has 9 features that are a first for smartphones

By Heba Al Saeed

Monday, September 25, 2023 at 11:00 p.m

Company AOn the contrary Introducing the 2023 edition of Apple phones, the iPhone 15, iPhone 15 Pro, iPhone 15 Plus and iPhone 15 Pro Max are currently on sale, with a host of new features, some of which are considered first-of-its-kind smartphones.

9 features of the iPhone 15 series are currently not found in any other smartphone.

The first two phones have a titanium frame

The iPhone 15 Pro and iPhone 15 Pro Max come with a hybrid titanium-aluminum body that claims to use an “industry-first thermo-mechanical process.” The phones feature titanium bands with a new subframe made using 100% recycled aluminum. More durable and lighter.

Shooting at 24MP by default

Most phones with high-resolution sensors take pixel-stacked pictures, and the new iPhone 15 series is no different. Most phones stack images at 12 megapixels, while the default resolution of new iPhones is 24 megapixels, which turns out to be quite high. Resolution image. While retaining more detail compared to 12MP images.

World’s first chip manufactured in 3nm technology

Apple iPhone 15 Pro and iPhone 15 Pro Max are powered by the industry’s first 3nm chip, the A17 Pro chip. This makes the company’s new chip the first to use the 3nm process.

But that’s only part of it: the updated chip brings the biggest GPU redesign in Apple’s history, and it also offers faster performance and an improved neural engine with ray tracing support.

Integrated OIS and autofocus technology

In announcing the new 5X telephoto lens, Apple also introduced a new autofocus system – a 3D sensor that combines both OIS and autofocus, which moves in three directions and is a first for any smartphone. This, according to Apple, offers excellent image stabilization performance with 10,000 micro-motions.

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Customizable action button

The idea of ​​an extra button is not new, but a customizable action button actually allows users to assign their preferred action to it and use the phone more conveniently.

Users can choose to keep the mute key function or set it as camera shutter, audio recorder and many more options.

Shooting in 4K60 in RAW format

Apple iPhone 15 Pro and iPhone 15 Pro Max are the first phones to support 4K60 video recording in ProRAW. This allows users to record smoother videos with more detail and data for post-processing.

Supports 5X zoom with tetra prism lens body

With a new 5x telephoto lens with a focal length of 120mm, Apple has developed a tetraprism design that combines optical image stabilization with a 3D sensor shift module for autofocus.

Tetraprism rewinds the image four times to deliver a bright, detailed zoom shot.

Automatic portrait mode is another new feature

Apple has launched the next-generation Portrait of the iPhone 15 series.

The updated portrait mode on iPhones automatically captures depth data when it detects a person, animal or bird in the frame, or when users tap the subject to focus on it. It allows users to apply photo effects using the Photos app and adjust focus after the photo is taken.

Qi 2 is finally coming to smartphones and the iPhone 15 series is the first

Qi 2 wireless charging standards were announced earlier this year, and the iPhone 15 series is the first to offer them. It is a new improved wireless charging standard that has a magnetic force profile for improved wireless charging.

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Why are they moving away from the iPhone? – Independent Press Agency



Why are they moving away from the iPhone?  – Independent Press Agency

Freedom /- There are many reasons why Android users prefer Android phones instead of buying iPhones regardless of price. Here are some common reasons:

Diversity of choices: Android offers a wide variety of smartphones from different manufacturers, which means there are many options at different price points. Users can easily choose the phone that suits their needs and budget.

System Flexibility: The Android system gives users more flexibility to customize and organize their phones according to their individual needs. You can install apps from sources outside of the Google Play Store, change the system interface, and make other changes easier than iOS.

Replacement costs: Android phones are often cheaper than iPhones, meaning it costs less to replace the device if needed.

Accessory support: Android smartphones allow users to use various accessories and add-ons at affordable prices.

User Habit: Simply put, some people have become accustomed to Android, its interface and operating system, so they prefer to stick with it.

Freedom to Customize: Android gives users more freedom to customize their home screen, apps and make UI changes as they wish.

Integration with Google platforms: If you are an active user of Google services like Gmail, Google Drive and Google Photos, Android phones offer better integration with these services.

Of course, choosing between Android and iOS depends on an individual’s personal preferences and needs, and each system has its own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the user should select the phone that meets their needs based on what they are looking for.

The evolution of Android and Android devices over the years has seen many changes and improvements. The following points highlight some notable developments and differences between Android and iOS (iPhone systems):

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Device Diversity:

Android: Android is available in various devices made by various companies like Samsung, Google, LG, Huawei etc. This means that there are many options of devices with different budgets and performance.
iOS: iOS only comes on Apple iPhones, which means the device’s versatility is limited.
Customize the user interface:

Android: Users can further customize the Android interface using launchers and third-party apps to change the look and feel of the system to their liking.
iOS: The iOS interface is simple and clean, but offers less flexibility in terms of interface customization than Android.
App Store:

Android: Google Play Store has millions of apps and games and developers big and small can publish their apps.
iOS: The iOS App Store is known for its security and quality of apps, but imposes more restrictions on app developers and requires strict permissions to publish apps.
Service Integration:

Android: Android has good integration with Google services like Gmail, Google Drive, Google Maps and Google Photos.
iOS: iOS integration with Apple services such as iCloud, Apple Maps and Apple Music.
System Updates:

Android: System updates on Android can be a bit delayed due to changes from different devices and manufacturers, but Google is working to improve this feature through initiatives like Project Treble.
iOS: iOS updates are available for all iPhones immediately after launch, meaning security and new features are available quickly.
These are some of the key differences between Android and iOS, and the features of both platforms have improved and evolved over the years. Choosing the appropriate system is a personal matter depending on the user’s needs and preferences.

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A “strange” exoplanet will hide its all-iron composition past its demise



A “strange” exoplanet will hide its all-iron composition past its demise

An international team of astronomers has revealed that a strange exoplanet, located 31 light-years from Earth in the Virgo galaxy, is denser than previously thought and a solid ball of metal.

Known as Gliese 367 b, or Tahay, the planet orbits a nearby red dwarf star, and little was known about it until scientists recently decided to delve deeper into the mystery of its mineral composition.

The study, published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, provides precise measurements of the planet’s mass and radius.

Taihai consists mostly of rock and iron and is about the same size as Earth, allowing it to be captured by current techniques.

“You can compare GJ 367 b to an Earth-like planet whose lithosphere has been stripped away,” lead author Elisa Coffo of the University of Turin told ScienceAlert.

Tahai was first discovered in 2021 by NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey (TESS) Space Telescope system as it orbited its small, faint red dwarf star. Scientists at the time declared it to be a planet with a very short orbit, as it orbited its host star in 7.7 hours, a mysterious and poorly studied category of exoplanets.

Scientists at the time pointed out that Gliese 367 b is a rocky world about 70% the size of Earth and 55% the mass, making it one of the lightest exoplanets known.

But the latest research showed something that shocked scientists, the results found that Dahai is denser than what the 2021 study found.

GJ 367 b is defined as an ultradense exoplanet. According to the new data, the exoplanet has a radius of 70% that of Earth instead of the previously estimated 72%, and its mass is 63% that of Earth instead of 55%.

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The team concluded that Dahai’s density is twice that of Earth. The secret is that Taihai may have experienced a cataclysmic event in the past that was mostly made of metal.

According to the study authors, this information can be proven by combining new measurements from TESS and the HARPS spectrometer, which is attached to the European Southern Observatory (ESO) telescope.

Joao suggested that this celestial body had a formation process similar to Earth’s, and that it appeared to have “a dense core composed mainly of iron, surrounded by a silicate-rich mantle”.

Hypotheses about its origin suggest that “a cataclysmic event could tear apart the rocky mantle and empty the planet’s dense core,” the astronomer said. This may have happened due to collisions between GJ 367 b and other protoplanets, stripping off its outer layer. Joao proposed a third theory, in which the planet is believed to have been “born in an iron-rich region of the protoplanetary disk”.

Source: The Sun

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