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Color of stool.. What is red, black and yellow?



Color of stool.. What is red, black and yellow?

DUBAI, United Arab Emirates (CNN) — There’s no one-size-fits-all answer to frequent bowel movements, but when it comes to stool color, experts agree.

According to Dr. Mark Garkins, MD, chief of pediatric gastroenterology at the University of Tennessee Health Sciences, the most common color of stool is brown in all shades.

The Office of Science and Society at McGill University, Canada, said the brown color is the result of the breakdown of bilirubin, a pigment formed during the breakdown or breakdown of red blood cells in the liver, and the greenish-yellow fluid produced in bile (bile). In the liver, it contributes to the digestion of fats.

When bilirubin and bile are released into the small intestine during digestion, they eventually turn into brown stools.

This physiological process is the reason why green is the second most common color of stool.

Professor of Medicine in the Department of Gastroenterology at the University of California, San Diego, Dr. Rena Yadlapati says that green stool indicates that food is moving quickly through the digestive tract, so green bile juice is still in the stool. Its original shape and has not turned brown.

“Sometimes we see it with diarrhea or infections. But if the stool is heavy, if it’s green, it’s usually due to high dietary factors or some iron intake,” Delapati added.

Since stool color is affected by what we eat and drink, experts point out, a good rule of thumb for determining the cause of unusual stool colors is to remember what you ate or drank in the last 24 hours. Your doctor.

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Garkins points out that eating a lot of tomato juice, beetroot or red gelatin, or drinking a lot of energy drinks with red dyes can cause red stools.

Some medications and nutritional supplements can affect stool color as a side effect.

But if what you ate isn’t the cause, here’s what you need to know — and when to see a doctor:

What is yellow or orange stool?

A yellow or orange stool color can indicate excess fat, especially if it appears greasy or oily, “some people may notice it’s associated with an unpleasant odor,” he explains.

The color may indicate malabsorption of fats due to celiac disease, pancreatic disease, or certain infections.

Celiac disease is an immune reaction to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye, and damages the lining of the small intestine.

Corkins points out that young children prefer vegetables with orange and yellow hues — such as carrots — more than others, so their stools may reflect these colors for this reason, insisting that “it’s not dangerous.”

The substance of black stool

What we always look for is a dark black color like tar, which is a warning sign, explained Telepathi.

Black stools are usually a sign of bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract, meaning the esophagus, stomach, and first part of the small intestine.

“When you lose blood from there, when the blood travels down the digestive tract, it turns black,” Delapathi said.

She continued, “It can lead to ulcers (or) inflammation that can lead to bleeding polyps. What we don’t see a lot of, but what we worry about is some type of stomach cancer.”

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Iron supplements or diarrhea medications containing bismuth subsalicylate can cause black stools.

Means white or pale stools

If the stool is white or pale in color, it means that little bile is moving through your digestive system, according to Thalapathy.

“It could indicate a more serious cause, such as the liver, bile ducts or pancreas,” he added.

He pointed out that some drugs, like barium, for example, the milky white liquid that patients drink before X-rays of the upper digestive tract, can turn the color of the stool pale white.

Red stool material

Red stools are especially worrisome because “there may be some bleeding in the intestinal tract, such as the colon or rectum,” Dellapathy explained.

Gastroenterologists believe that the blood in the stool comes from the lower part of the colon or rectum, because the red color of the stool from blood indicates that the blood has not had time to change its color.

He added: “It can sometimes be in the form of hemorrhoids, which appear in the toilet with bright red blood, but not necessarily mixed with stool.”

Other causes include ulcers in the digestive tract caused by medications or conditions such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease, Thalapathy noted.

Colon cancer is a less common cause, but it is still a cause for concern.

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Why not keep your toothbrush in the bathroom?



Why not keep your toothbrush in the bathroom?


We all know that maintaining oral hygiene is very important and the most important step to do this is to brush your teeth twice a day with mouthwash and floss.

But according to experts, you could be putting your oral hygiene at risk by storing your toothbrush in the bathroom.

“Storing your toothbrush in the bathroom can expose you to a variety of health problems, but the level of risk varies depending on the bathroom environment and your specific habits,” explains Dr. Payal Bhalla, principal dentist and medical director of Quest Dental.

Dr. Balla says that aerosolized bacteria can pose a problem because “when you flush the toilet, especially when the lid is open, small droplets containing bacteria and other microorganisms can splash out and settle on nearby surfaces, including your toothbrush.”

When your toothbrush is near the toilet, it’s “more likely to come into contact with airborne particles and water splashes” that “lead to contamination.”

Bathrooms can also be a humid environment, which can encourage the growth of bacteria and mold on your toothbrush.

In shared bathrooms, “there is a greater potential for cross-contamination as multiple people use the space and touch different surfaces.”

As for faecal particles, which can be on your toothbrush, Dr. Bhalla explains: “It’s possible to have faecal particles in the bathroom environment, including surfaces like your toothbrush. This can happen when toilets are cleaned. Not closing the lid, and brushing can release small droplets of faecal bacteria and other microbes into the air. .To reduce the risk of faecal particles coming into contact with your toothbrush, you can follow hygiene tips such as rinsing your toothbrush before using it, storing it upright, covering it with the toothbrush, and closing the toilet lid when washing.

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She also recommends “rinsing your toothbrush thoroughly under tap water before using it” because it “will help remove any potential contaminants. Also place your toothbrush upright in a toothbrush cup and allow it to air dry. Make sure it doesn’t touch other toothbrushes. ” To prevent cross contamination.

Dr. Bhalla emphasized the importance of changing toothbrushes “every three to four months or so” to keep them healthy and effective.

He added: “To reduce the spread of airborne particles, close the toilet lid before cleaning, use a breathable toothbrush cover to protect your toothbrush from bathroom contaminants, and regularly clean the toothbrush holder or cup to prevent bacteria and mold build-up. “

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The Day of the Big Clash… NASA on Historic Mission to Save Earth (Photos)



The Day of the Big Clash… NASA on Historic Mission to Save Earth (Photos)

02:35 PM

Wednesday, September 20, 2023

Scientists believe that September 24, 2182 marks the date that the asteroid “Bennu” will hit the Earth, so the American space agency NASA is preparing to undertake a dangerous mission to prevent a collision and save our planet from destruction.

According to NASA, this space rock passes close to our planet every 6 years, but it will have a very close encounter with Earth after another 159 years, and if it collides with us, its force will be equal to 22 nuclear bombs.

Although the odds of a cataclysmic impact are estimated at 1 in 2,700, NASA sent a spacecraft to Bennu 7 years ago to collect samples from it. They hope the data will help them prepare for an asteroid deflection mission similar to NASA’s DART mission, which successfully changed the orbit of the small asteroid moon Temorphos last year.

The asteroid samples will reach Earth this week, landing in the Utah desert on September 24.

“We’re now in the final stages of this seven-year mission,” Rich Burns, OSIRIS-REx program manager at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, told the Sunday Telegraph.

Bennu is about 492 meters wide (about half the size of the asteroid that killed the dinosaurs), so it wasn’t big enough to cause global extinction.

NASA estimated that it could have an impact 9 kilometers wide and cause devastation in a radius of about 1,000 kilometers from the crash site.

Between now and 2300 the chance of Bennu colliding with Earth is 1750.

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“The raw materials from asteroid Bennu will help shed light on how our solar system formed 4.5 billion years ago and how life began on Earth,” said Nicola Fox, associate administrator of NASA’s Science Operations Directorate in Washington.

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Hurricane Daniel: No Evidence of Epidemic Spread in Terna by Accumulated Bodies – World Health



Hurricane Daniel: No Evidence of Epidemic Spread in Terna by Accumulated Bodies – World Health

image source, Emergency Medicine and Support Center

Comment on photo,

Rescue teams face obstacles due to the rugged topography of mountains and valleys in Terna city.

  • author, Zainab is a hyena
  • stock, BBC News

Although the bodies of those killed by Hurricane Daniel were decomposing, the organization had no evidence that they had serious infectious diseases, said Dr. Ahmed Suidan, the World Health Organization’s representative in Libya.

“This could happen if the death is associated with an infectious disease like cholera or Ebola,” Zoiden added in an interview with the BBC.

The reports came as fears began to loom on the horizon that the piles of bodies could fuel the spread of disease in Derna, one of the Libyan cities worst hit by the cyclone.

In this regard, he said that any diseases or epidemics are spread only through contaminated water, adding that “there is an urgent need to provide safe drinking water and sanitation to people to avoid spreading any diseases through water or food.”

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