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Researchers have developed a new technology to generate electricity from air humidity Science

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Researchers have developed a new technology to generate electricity from air humidity  Science

Researchers have devised a way to generate electricity from air moisture using a device that can be made from almost any material.

Patrol Advanced MaterialsThe researchers cite that the new design can harvest electricity from water droplets dispersed in the air for longer periods of time than previous technologies allowed. .

Recent efforts to generate electricity from wind

Air contains varying amounts of moisture, which are particles of water vapor collected in very small droplets, and these droplets carry very small electric charges at their edges, which, if placed in certain locations, can be used to produce lightning bolts with very high electrical charges. Climatic conditions.

Although this phenomenon is not new, until recently scientists were not interested in exploring the potential of harnessing this latent energy in the air to generate clean energy.

Air humidity can produce very high levels of lightning (Shutterstock).

The researchers came to this discovery by creating imbalances in the electrical charges of water droplets in moist air using special devices.

In 2020, a team of researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst developed a device called Air-Gen to generate energy using protein nanowires made by Geobacter bacteria. This device helps generate electricity from moisture in the air.

And in 2022, he managed Australian researchers From developing a new technology that relies on ambient moisture – such as sweat produced by the human body – to generate electricity using graphene oxide.

However, these technologies require expensive materials to produce and only work for short periods of time, presenting practical challenges for efficiency and large-scale application.

A promising technology for generating energy from air humidity

One inside A new studyA team of researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst has developed AirGen technology, using all known materials to generate electricity from air, without the need for protein nanowires.

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According to Press release Published on the university’s website on May 23, 2023, the device consists of two thin layers of the same material, topped with very tiny holes of less than 100 nanometers in diameter, a thousand times smaller in diameter. A human hair.

This new technology has many promising applications in powering wearable devices (Shutterstock).

At this scale, the pores are large enough to allow water to flow from top to bottom, but small enough for water droplets to contact the material as they move down through the pores. This results in an imbalance in the electrical charges on the device, as the water droplets touch the upper layer as they travel down, increasing its charge.

Test results show the microscope can produce continuous power equivalent to several hundred millivolts for a week-long test period, much longer than previous techniques that lasted more than 48 hours.

The researchers confirm that this energy can be doubled by stacking a large number of layers vertically forming the device, making it competitive with other renewable energy sources such as solar power and wind power. such as solar panels and can be designed into various shapes and precisely blended with the rest of the environmental components.

The researchers expect this new technology to have many promising applications in the field of microelectronics and powering wearable devices.

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Abortion: How does its ban affect women’s safety?

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Abortion: How does its ban affect women’s safety?

image source, EPA-EFE/REX/Shutterstock

Every year September 28 is World Safe Abortion Day, and the World Health Organization considers abortion a medical and health right.

The reasons why women have abortions are varied. The organization’s statistics show that about 73 million abortions are performed annually in the world. Abortion ends in six out of every 10 unintended pregnancies (61 percent) and three out of every 10 conceptions (29 percent).

Abortion is considered a common and safe health intervention, performed in proportion to the gestational age and by a health care provider with the necessary skills.

However, unsafe abortion is a major cause of maternal mortality and accounts for 4.7 to 13.2 percent of maternal deaths annually.

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Why does the Atlantic Ocean expand while the Pacific Ocean shrinks? | Science

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Why does the Atlantic Ocean expand while the Pacific Ocean shrinks?  |  Science

The Atlantic Ocean is expanding by about two inches each year, pushing Europe and Africa away from the Americas, while the Pacific Ocean is shrinking by a fifth of a square mile per year.

Although the size of the Earth’s oceans does not change significantly in the short term, any changes have a significant effect over millions of years due to the geological processes that occur. But it is the set of interactions that continue to shape our world.

The change in the size of the oceans is an important factor, the tectonic plates that make up the earth’s crust, because the earth’s surface is divided into many tectonic plates that are constantly moving, although we are not usually aware of them.

Tectonic plates can move toward each other, away from each other, or next to each other. As the plates move away from each other, they create what is called a ridge or oceanic rift, and as they move towards each other, this can lead to the formation of a subduction zone beneath one plate beneath the other.

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean in the world (Getty).

Why is the Atlantic Ocean expanding?

As for the Atlantic Ocean, it is a vast body of water on our planet that covers more than 20% of the Earth’s surface. Although it is the second largest ocean in the world and has an area of ​​106.5 million square kilometers, it is still expanding at a rate of 4 centimeters every year.

That’s because parts of the Atlantic Ocean are moving away from each other, and the key to this expansion lies in what’s happening beneath a large underwater mountain range in the middle, according to a study published in 2021 in the journal Nature. of the ocean known as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

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University of Southampton researchers have shown that material deep in the Earth rises to the surface under the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, forming a new oceanic crust, as magma rises from the Earth’s crust and solidifies at the surface, pushing the plates.

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the largest tectonic range on the planet, as it stretches 16.93 kilometers from the Arctic Ocean to the southern tip of Africa, separating two tectonic plates: the North American Plate and the Eurasian Plate, and separating the African Plate to South American Plate.

According to Live Science, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is where the South American and North American plates are moving away from the Eurasian and African plates at a rate of about 4 centimeters per year, widening the Atlantic Ocean.

According to information published on the University of Southampton website, the research team found that magma and rocks can travel up to 410 miles below the crust to the surface. It is this flow of material that propels tectonic plates and continents upward at a rate of 4 centimeters per year.

The study found that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a hotspot for convection, which makes the region thinner and magma material rises to the ocean floor more easily than the rest of Earth.

Material trying to move from the lower to upper mantle is usually blocked by a dense group of rocks called the mantle transition zone, located between 255 miles and 410 miles below our feet. Research suggests that the upwelling of material from deep in the mantle may be driving this expansion in the Atlantic Ocean.

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The process began 200 million years ago, but one day the rate of expansion may accelerate, Catherine Reichert, a geophysicist at the University of Southampton and co-author of the study, tells Insider.

The Pacific Ocean is shrinking by a fifth of a square mile annually (Reuters)

Why is the Pacific Ocean shrinking?

As for the Pacific Ocean, although it is the world’s largest ocean covering about 30% of the Earth’s surface, it is shrinking by about a fifth of a square mile every year, some scientists believe. After millions of years, it will disappear completely.

As reported on the “Science ABC” website, this contraction is caused by Earth’s largest tectonic plate, the Pacific plate, being pushed beneath other plates in a process called subduction. The Pacific plate is subducting as it moves deeper into the Earth’s crust, causing the ocean above it to shrink.

In addition, the Pacific Ocean experiences complex interactions between different convergent and divergent tectonic plate boundaries and eventually shrinks in size. While parts of the Pacific Plate are moving toward other plates, such as the North American Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate, there are also areas where plates are moving away from other plates, such as the eastern boundary of the Pacific Plate with the Nazca Plate.

In addition to having many volcanoes in the world, it is believed that most earthquakes occur in the Pacific Ocean. All these cause high vibrations, causing the plates to move and destroy old parts of the Earth’s crust. The sea floor cannot grow fast enough to replace degraded areas.

Ultimately, the size of Earth’s oceans is determined by long-term geologic processes related to plate tectonics, and any changes in ocean sizes occur on geologic timescales, not human lifetimes. These geological processes have been shaping the world as we know it for millions of years.

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300 million years ago, our planet did not consist of 7 continents, but instead consisted of one ocean and one continent, which scientists called “Pangaea”. Over time, the continent slowly collapsed, according to Bright Side.

At one point, South America, Antarctica, Australia, and Africa were one unit, and North America and Eurasia were another. Over time, these continents also separated, each moving in its own direction.

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How to use mental health feature on Apple devices?

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How to use mental health feature on Apple devices?

The iOS 17 software update gives Apple the option to record momentary emotions or daily moods in the mental tracking feature.

Users can share the results of the assessment by activating the feature with a doctor or trusted specialist for follow-up.

AndApple mentions The Apple Health app in iOS 17 and iPadOS 17 and the Mindfulness app in watchOS 10 offer users an engaging and seamless way to delve deeper into their psychological state.

All information entered in both registration and assessment tools is encrypted on the device and can only be accessed using a passcode, Touch ID or Face ID.

When you sync health data to the cloud (iCloud) using default two-factor authentication and a passcode, your health data is end-to-end encrypted. In other words, no one, including Apple, can read it.

Where can I find this feature on the device?

The Mindfulness feature is found in the Apple Health section on iPhone and iPad and through the Mindness app on Apple Watch.

On an iPhone or iPad, you can find this feature under the list of health categories by opening Apple Health and tapping Browse.

Click on this option and then select Mood.

On the next screen, click the Get Started button if you’re using this feature for the first time, or click the Register button or calendar icon in the top right corner if you’ve done it before.

You can program a daily reminder to log your mood or emotions by tapping Options and from there, choose to be reminded to create a new entry during your day, at the end of your day, and/or at a specific time. day

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This menu also includes an option to manage Apple Watch recording notifications.

To find the recording feature on your Apple Watch, tap the Mindbeing app, and if you have watchOS 10, you’ll find a recording option in that menu.

Difference between Mood and Emotion

Before you register anything, Apple Health makes an important distinction between emotion and mindset.

In an explanatory article on the difference between emotion and mood in the mental health aspect, Apple Health points out that emotion is a temporary reaction to a particular experience, while mood lasts for a long time and may or may not be caused by many factors. An obvious reason.

When you select the register button or mental status icon, you can start the registration process.

When asked to “score,” select an emotion or mood, based on the day’s events or trends you’d like to analyze.

You can also choose to record emotions and moods separately.

For example, someone who has recently become a parent may want to record both feelings and mood to track feelings that arise in response to stressful or happy parenting experiences, as well as to better understand their overall mood over time and their overall mood as they adapt to their new situation. .

Recording feelings is useful for someone who wants to identify experiences that improve or worsen their health, such as time spent on social media, hobbies, or physical activity.

Whatever you choose, you’ll be asked to rate the nature of your mood or emotions on a scale from “very unpleasant” to “very pleasant.”

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Click “Next” to choose from more than thirty adjectives that best describe your feelings, including “peaceful,” “angry,” “indifferent,” “jealous,” “happy” and “proud.”

Finally, you will be asked to note what “affects” you the most.

Pre-written factors you can choose from include health, spirituality, family, tasks, weather, money, and current events.

It is mentioned that you can go back in time and record past feelings or moods via the calendar icon.

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