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5 Most Popular Astronomy Myths People Spread | Science



5 Most Popular Astronomy Myths People Spread |  Science

Astronomy, by its very nature, depends on a lot of mathematics and physics, which may seem cold and difficult to many people, making it a complex science, thus opening the door to many errors and myths that contradict science.

In what follows, we review 5 major myths that have been spread about celestial bodies:

1- The stars twinkle

Many people think that stars twinkle naturally in the sky, but they really don’t. The brightness of the stars has nothing to do with the stars themselves, but rather with the nature of the Earth’s atmosphere. Thus its brightness and color changes with the change in atmospheric conditions.

The effects of luminescence are always more pronounced when the star is near the horizon, because the light rays from it pass through a dense layer and have a long path through the atmosphere before reaching the observer.

This condition is called “Celestial Luminosity” (astronomical scintillation), and astronomers are interested in studying it because it affects the measurements of telescopes, so astronomical organizations such as the US Space Agency (NASA) and the European Space Agency want to send telescopes into space to reduce the negative. Effect of scintillation on astronomical images.

The luminosity of stars has nothing to do with the stars themselves, but rather with the nature of Earth’s atmosphere (pixabay)

2- North star is the brightest star

As much as some may think it is the brightest star in the sky, the most famous star in the sky is undoubtedly the North Star. But this is far from the truth, because the brightest star in the sky is Sirius, which is found in the constellation Canis Major and is 20 times brighter than the North Star.

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However, this does not mean that the light of the North Star is faint, but rather that you can easily see it with the naked eye in a semi-dark area (a village, for example, not a brightly lit city center).

The reason for the popularity of the North Star is not its brightness, but – as its name suggests – It always points to the North PoleIf you’re lost in the desert and don’t know the four directions, the North Star always points north.

3- There are 12 constellations in the sky

You probably won’t believe it, but the number of constellations that represent the constellations in the sky is 13, not 12, because the zodiac circle (the imaginary line through which the Sun crosses the sky) consists of 13 constellations that have names. Known constellations in addition to a region Constellation “Oprah”.

But because the Sun spends only 18 days in the constellation Ophiuchus, the constellations thousands of years ago removed Ophiuchus from the list.

In fact, the claim about the relationship between the stars in the sky and the people on the earth is a pure myth, which has been refuted by many experiments, the most famous of which An experiment by physicist Sean Carlson 1985 at the Lawrence Barclay Physics Laboratory.

Carlson gathered 28 interested astrologers, provided them with psychological ratings of several individuals and their dates of birth, and asked the astrologers to correlate psychological traits with their date of birth. Ultimately, astrologers are unable to reconcile individual test profiles with dates of birth.

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Astronomy images appear in color because the camera receives more light from the sky than the eye can. Pictured is the Drift Nebula (Getty Images).

4- Telescope images are as colorful as internet images

Celestial bodies – galaxies and nebulae – appear in binoculars In black and whiteAnd not in color like the pictures circulating online.

Because these objects are so far away that their light does not reach us, our eyes track them with a type of cell called “cone cells,” which are used in the case of objects that emit little light, but they do. They do not show their colors, instead they appear to us in black and white.

For example, when you see something moving in a very dark room, you notice its movement, but not its colors.

Camera sensors for astrophotography are similar to our eyes in their mechanism of capturing images, but with one difference, which is that our eyes capture images one tenth of a second and then load the images, creating one by one what we see in front of us. moment. As for the camera’s sensor, it can take one picture every hour, two, 10 or more, during which it collects more light, which then shows the celestial bodies in color.

5- In the case of “Giant Moon” the Moon appears very large.

A “supermoon” is an event that occurs every year or two in which the phase of the lunar full moon is associated with the presence of the moon at its closest point to Earth, making the moon appear brighter or larger. It’s usually a more pleasant event than usual during a normal full moon, especially since people don’t see much of the moon anyway.

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But in the case of a giant moon the brightness and size of the moon is not as great as some people think, but only increases the size of the moon in the sky by about 10%.

The reason for the spread of this myth may be due to the images circulating on the Internet in which the Moon is large and clear compared to objects on Earth, but those images capture With special techniques When the photographer moves between the moon and the object to be photographed (for example, an ancient building), then moves far away from the building and takes the picture using a telephoto lens, it tricks the eye so that the moon appears larger compared to the building.

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If you can’t resist spicy food…foods that moisten your tongue and soothe your digestive system



If you can’t resist spicy food…foods that moisten your tongue and soothe your digestive system

By Anas al-Banna

Sunday, December 3, 2023 at 10:00 p.m

Some people like to eat a lot of spicy food and may not be able to resist it, although this may cause some problems with the taste buds of the tongue or the digestive system, and according to the website “My Health only“, can cause Chili pepper For various digestive problems like vomiting, indigestion, irritable bowel syndrome and constipation, there are ways to improve spice tolerance..

Cool ingredients from your diet to soothe chili problems

Eating cooling foods like yogurt, cucumber, mint and coconut are great ways to combat the heat of burning foods as they soothe the digestive system.

Stay hydrated

Spicy foods can cause dehydration, so be sure to stay hydrated, especially when eating spicy foods, drinking water and herbs to help balance and maintain balance.

Yogurt with hot dishes

Drinking curd after eating spicy food can help in relieving the heat caused by spicy food. Curd is a classic remedy, it contains probiotics and has a soothing effect on the digestive system.

Herbs like chamomile

Herbs like cilantro can help cut down on spicy flavors. Additionally, drinking herbal teas like chamomile or peppermint after meals can also help ease digestion after a spicy meal.

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Can earthquakes be predicted using artificial intelligence models?



Can earthquakes be predicted using artificial intelligence models?

The painful earthquakes in Turkey, Morocco and Afghanistan in 2023, which caused severe losses beyond thousands of deaths and injuries and severe damage to infrastructure, confirm the importance of constructing earthquake-resistant buildings. Many technological solutions are now available to increase the resistance of buildings to earthquakes, which may protect lives or mitigate their psychological and economic effects and consequences. Many international universities are also racing to develop technologies that can help predict earthquakes using artificial intelligence.

Major universities are developing new technologies to help predict earthquakes with artificial intelligence (Shutterstock).

Earthquake resistant designs

Earthquake-resistant design includes a range of technologies and methods to improve a building’s ability to withstand seismic forces. In an exclusive interview with Asharq Al-Awsat, architect Muhammad Obaid, founder and CEO of Emcon Architecture and Engineering Consultancy, explains the basic techniques and methods currently used in earthquake-resistant design. “Basic isolation systems range from shear walls, moment-resisting frames, anchorage systems, tuned mass dampers, viscous dampers, reinforced concrete, steel framing, flexible materials, energy dissipation devices, seismic retrofitting, design of non-structural components,” Obaid said. says. , and soil optimization, seismic hazard assessment, computer modeling and simulation, and building codes and standards.” He adds, “Engineers and architects combine these techniques and methods to create detailed earthquake-resistant designs designed to meet the specific needs and conditions of the building and its location, and the choice of techniques depends on factors such as the type of building, location, budget, and level of seismic risk.” “

Architect Mohammad Obaid is the Founder and CEO of “EMKON” Architectural and Engineering Consulting Firm (EMKON).

Restoration of old buildings

Retrofitting existing buildings with sustainable, earthquake-resistant technologies is certainly possible, but it requires careful planning, engineering expertise and compliance with local regulations. Architect Muhammad Obaid, speaking to Asharq Al-Awsat, believes that “existing buildings can be modernized with sustainable and earthquake-resistant technologies, although the process varies in complexity depending on the specific technologies and the structural and architectural characteristics of the building.” Some of the considerations for retrofitting existing buildings with these techniques include “structural retrofitting, material improvements, architectural considerations, engineering expertise, building codes and permits, cost considerations, phased approach, seismic evaluation and integration of sustainable technologies,” he explains. “Operational challenges and issues vary from one building to another, and a customized approach is often necessary to achieve desired seismic and sustainability goals while minimizing disruption to building occupants,” he notes.

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Anticipating aftershocks

Stanford University researchers have developed an artificial intelligence model that can predict aftershocks after an earthquake with more than 80 percent accuracy.

The model was trained on a dataset of more than 700,000 earthquakes from around the world, and it was able to identify patterns in more complex data that traditional methods could not detect, the researchers report.

The model works by analyzing seismic activity data sources, geological data and machine learning algorithms to identify patterns and trends associated with the occurrence of earthquakes. It can predict the size and timing of a setback. The model is still under development, but it can be a valuable predictive tool that can improve the accuracy and timeliness of aftershock warnings and help save lives and property.

The Japanese DLEPM model was trained on a dataset of over 10 million global seismic events (Shutterstock).

High precision Japanese model

Scientists at the University of Tokyo have succeeded in developing a model called Deep Learning Earthquake Prediction Model (DLEPM) that can predict with high accuracy by analyzing seismic activity patterns. The model was trained on a dataset of over 10 million seismic events from around the world. DLEPM analyzes a variety of data sources, including geographic data and machine learning algorithms. Japanese university researchers say it has proven to be very accurate in predicting. It is 80 percent successful in predicting magnitude 6 or greater earthquakes within a week of their occurrence.

“DLEPM” is still under development, but its potential is not limited to saving lives and property, but improving researchers’ understanding of earthquake processes and how and why they occur to develop new strategies to prevent them and mitigate their effects.

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Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States is developing an artificial intelligence model that could help predict earthquakes (Shutterstock)

Prediction of crack friction

Another AI model that can predict future fault friction is called the Deep Learning Fault Friction Model (DLFFM), developed by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the US.

Trained on a dataset of more than one million laboratory earthquakes, the model analyzes various data sources to identify patterns and trends associated with fault friction. They can be used to predict future friction at a given location, and how friction will change over time. DLFFM is still under development, but could be a valuable tool for improving the accuracy and timeliness of earthquake warnings.

Kengo Kuma, a Japanese architect, used carbon fiber to stabilize buildings and protect them from earthquakes (Shutterstock)

The innovative Japanese method

Japan is located on the Pacific “Ring of Fire” and is known for frequent seismic activity, prompting the design and construction of earthquake-resistant buildings.

An architectural firm affiliated with Kengo Kuma used carbon fiber to stabilize buildings and protect them from earthquakes. These materials are made from thermoplastic carbon fiber, a material with amazing tensile strength that rivals traditional building materials like steel. The innovation provides additional reinforcement to the building structure as carbon fiber ropes extend through a metal frame above the eco-friendly roof and then drop down the sides to reach the ground. Carbon fibres, separated in curtain-like fashion, form doors that lead to interior spaces draped over time and covered in white fabric.

The Stanford model works by analyzing seismic and geological data sources and machine learning algorithms (Shutterstock).

Cost of earthquake resistant buildings

Earthquake-resistant technologies can have a significant impact on the overall cost of a construction project. While these technologies are essential to ensure a building’s safety and resilience during seismic events, they can also add cost to a project. Architect Muhammad Obaid, founder and CEO of Imcon Architecture and Engineering Consulting, explains in an exclusive interview with Asharq Al-Awsad, “The degree of this influence depends on various factors, including specific technologies, the location of the project, the type of building and the level of seismic hazards. “Earthquake He believes that resisting technologies, materials and components, complexity of structural design, special systems, foundation systems, quality control and inspection, architectural modifications, seismic retrofits, local building codes, and degree of seismic risk affect construction costs. Project size and complexity and maintenance and life cycle costs.

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While earthquake-resistant technologies add upfront construction costs, they also lead to long-term benefits. Architect Muhammad Obaid says, “These benefits include increased safety, lower repair and reconstruction costs after an earthquake, and a possible reduction in insurance premiums. Some regions offer incentives or subsidies to cover the initial costs of incorporating earthquake-resistant technologies.” Generally, building an earthquake-resistant building costs more than a conventional building. According to architect Muhammad Obaid, this cost is “10 percent to 30 percent more than the cost of building a conventional building.”

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The most dangerous of them is the “breath of the dead” … Bad breath is a symptom of these serious diseases



The most dangerous of them is the “breath of the dead” … Bad breath is a symptom of these serious diseases

Some metabolic disorders can cause bad breath due to various problems in the intestines, blood or liver.

The following are the most important medical conditions that can cause complications:


  • A common condition that causes bad breath in the mouth and throat is diabetes because high glucose levels can cause the growth of harmful bacteria.
  • Because people with diabetes have insulin problems, cells may not get the glucose they need for energy, and instead the body starts burning fat-forming compounds called ketones.
  • Ketones accumulate in the blood and urine and cause bad breath.
  • One of these ketones is acetone, and it can cause breath to smell like nail polish.
  • If someone with diabetes notices the smell, they should seek medical advice as it could be due to diabetic ketoacidosis, a life-threatening condition.

Liver disease

  • If a person’s breath has a strong, foul smell, this is a sign that the liver is not filtering out toxins.
  • Doctors call this distinctive smell “the breath of the dead” because of its association with severe and fatal liver disease.

Kidney disease

  • Chronic kidney disease is a condition in which the kidneys are damaged and cannot filter the blood properly, which is why excess fluids and waste from the blood can build up in the body and cause other health problems such as heart disease and stroke.
  • People with kidney failure may develop bad breath.
  • As the kidneys begin to fail, the metabolic urea cannot be excreted effectively in the urine, and it accumulates in the blood and saliva.
  • The body converts urea into ammonia, which causes bitterness in the mouth and bad breath.
  • One in three people on dialysis say their breath smells like urine.
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Too much methionine in the blood

  • It is an increase in a specific protein building block (amino acid) called methionine in the blood.
  • People with this condition often have no symptoms, but if their breath, sweat, or urine smells like boiled cabbage, they should see a doctor.

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