Tracking the motion of high-speed electrons has won 3 Nobel Prizes in Physics
There is a slight difference between “femtosecond” and “attosecond,” but both led researchers to win the Nobel Prize. The “femtosecond” (one millionth of a billionth of a second) awarded Egyptian scientist Ahmed Zewail the “Nobel Prize in Chemistry” in 1999, while Frenchman Pierre Agostini, Austro-Hungarian Ferenc Krause and French-Swedish Ann Lhuillier each won. “Nobel Prize in Physics” in 2023
Zewail invented a microscope that could shoot laser beams in “femtoseconds” so that molecules could be seen during chemical reactions. But three scientists, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics, “have demonstrated a way to create ultra-short bursts of light that can be used to measure rapid processes in which electrons move or transfer energy,” according to a report from the Royal Swedish Academy. The science that awards the Nobel Prize for Physics.
Over decades, the research conducted by the three laureates has allowed them to investigate fast processes that were previously impossible to follow. This new technology is critical to understanding and controlling how electrons behave in matter.
Eva Olsen, head of the Nobel Physics Committee, told a press conference on Tuesday that attosecond science allows us to address fundamental questions such as the time scale of the photoelectric effect, for which Albert Einstein won the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics.
Members of the team explained that “an attosecond is so short that one second is the number of seconds that have passed since the universe began 13.8 billion years ago,” adding that “contributions by the winners made it possible to explore processes that were very fast, and previously impossible to follow.” ».
What did the winners give?
Agostini is a professor at Ohio State University in the US and Krause is a director at the Max Planck Institute in Germany. As for Lhuillier, the fifth woman to win the Nobel Prize in Physics since 1901, she works as a professor at Lund University in Sweden.
Experiments by Nobel laureates in physics produced pulses of light so short that they were measured in totoseconds, demonstrating that these pulses could be used to provide images of processes within atoms and molecules.
Anne Lhuillier discovered a new effect of the interaction of laser light with atoms in a gas, while Pierre Agostini succeeded in generating and studying continuous light pulses, each pulse lasting only 250 attoseconds. At the same time, Ferenc Krause was working on another type of experiment that managed to isolate a light pulse lasting 650 attoseconds. The laureates’ contributions made it possible to explore processes that were previously too fast and impractical, according to the committee’s report.
Bob Rosner, president of the American Physical Society and professor at the University of California, said of the award: “The winners were able to produce flashes of light that allowed us to see the assembly of molecules and how things fit together. to make a molecule.” These movements “happen so quickly that we don’t really know how they happen or what the sequence of events is,” Rosner told CNN.
The laureates’ work means scientists can now observe how these movements occur, he added. He continued: “Imagine building a house. You have a foundation, walls, roof, etc. Anything complex has a sequence. “For a molecule, if you don’t get the sequence right, you can’t assemble it.”
For his part, Michael Moloney, CEO of the American Institute of Physics, said: “These techniques allow us to see atoms down to the size of electrons, which previously moved so quickly that we couldn’t see them. We don’t have light fast enough to detect this movement,” British newspaper, Financial Times reported.
Meanwhile, Mitti Attatori, head of Cambridge University’s physics lab, added, “Decades of searching for short, intense pulses have allowed us to learn how matter behaves on shorter and shorter timescales. “This is our highest precision measure of how the world works.”
“Attoseconds” and the motion of electrons
An “attosecond” is 1,000 times faster than a “femtosecond” and is the shortest time scale scientists have ever achieved.
The femtosecond is used to measure very fast phenomena such as the interactions of light and matter, and is also used in advanced laser technologies, the attosecond is used to measure phenomena that occur at speeds faster than the femtosecond. Electrons.
Electrons, tiny particles that orbit the nucleus of an atom, move at incredibly high speeds, making them difficult to observe. However, by studying these particles in fractions of a second called attoseconds, the researchers were able to get a “fuzzy” view of their behavior. According to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, this breakthrough allows new scientific fields to be explored, and has the potential for practical applications in areas such as electronics and diagnostics.
According to the Nobel Committee’s report, fast-moving events flow into one another as a person perceives them, just as a film with still images is seen as continuous motion. If we want to investigate very short events, we need special technology. In the world of electrons, transitions occur in a few tenths of an attosecond.
Just as the naked human eye cannot distinguish the individual strokes of a hummingbird’s wing, the team explained that until this achievement, scientists had not been able to observe or measure the individual motions of an electron. Fast movements tend to blur together so that very short events cannot be noticed.
“The faster the event happens, the faster you can photograph if you want to capture the moment,” the team said. “The same principle applies to trying to capture a quick snapshot of the electrons’ movements.”
The Nobel report indicated that there are potential applications for attosecond pulses in various fields. In electronics, for example, it is important to understand and control how electrons in a material behave. Totosecond pulses can also be used to identify various molecules, such as in medical diagnostics.
The work of the three winners will pave the way for potential applications in fields including electronics and medicine, said Eva Olsson, adding, “We can now open the door to the world of electronics.” Attosecond physics allows us to understand the mechanisms governed by electrons. The next step will be to take advantage of it,” he said.
Meanwhile, Anne Lhuillier, the fifth woman out of 225 Nobel laureates in physics, said that the practical use of totosecond lasers could be as an imaging tool in the semiconductor industry. Lhuillier made the first breakthrough in a series of discoveries leading to attosecond physics at the University of Paris-Saclay in France in 1987, and continued his research after moving to Sweden in the 1990s. “We’re just now seeing applications appear,” he said. “Basic research is very important and should be funded.”
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said Ferenc Krause’s lab was “taking the first steps towards biological applications”. By combining attosecond physics with broadband optics, researchers are developing new ways to detect changes in the molecular composition of biological fluids, including diagnosing diseases from blood samples.
A good night’s sleep is essential for health, as levels of leptin, a hormone responsible for feelings of fullness, rise during sleep, and ghrelin, a hormone that sends hunger signals, decreases at bedtime. Give the body a chance to sleep.
But the thing is, the feeling of hunger at night is not without pressure, which can spoil this equation, for reasons such as: eating the last meal too soon, tension and stress, blood sugar level fluctuations or vitamin D deficiency. A certified nutritionist said. , Katherine Metzeler, Well & Good.
His colleague Michelle Reker, a certified nutritionist, pointed out the effect that “the lack of food needed to get the calories the body needs during the day, especially after an intense evening workout, can lead to increased energy expenditure and nighttime hunger.”
Fake or real hunger?
Certified nutritionist Barbara Ross told the US newspaper HuffPost, “Anxiety can wake us up in the middle of the night, and we confuse it with hunger.” In this case, he suggests drinking a cup of decaffeinated herbal tea. Calms the nerves.
To quench the flames of true hunger, Metzeler emphasizes the importance of going “no food during the day, no more than 4 to 5 hours at most,” and making sure to eat enough foods that include plenty of protein. healthy fats, vegetables, whole grains and complex carbohydrates; Keep energy levels high and feel energized and satisfied throughout the day.
Later in the night, the impact of hunger can be reduced, so many people rush to the kitchen and eat the candy, potato chips and gravy or leftover steak from lunch, which can be difficult for them. Go back to sleep and they start the next day feeling uncomfortable.This causes them health problems: weight gain.
According to the Healthline website, there is growing scientific evidence that eating too late at night can make weight control more difficult.
The right foods
According to research published in 2015, “If you’re hungry late at night, it’s okay to eat a small, nutrient-dense snack under 200 calories.”
Here are 7 examples of these foods that a panel of certified nutritionists told HuffPost, “They’re great for fighting nighttime hunger pangs while helping you get back to sleep.”
Turkey breast slices
Certified nutritionist, Marissa Mechoulam looks at; Turkey breast is “a great way to satisfy an after-midnight hunger pang, whether eaten alone or stuffed into half a sandwich.”
Turkey breast pieces are known to “help you fall asleep, relax and go back to sleep because they are rich in the amino acid (L-tryptophan), which turns into the sleep hormone (melatonin); in addition. to their protein content, it is “enough to suppress the feeling of hunger until morning. “
Fiber-rich cheese and crackers
According to Mechoulam, “any snack we choose should include protein and fiber to keep us full throughout the night”; It’s found in protein-rich cottage cheese, which contains some sleep-aiding tryptophan and fiber-rich crackers. Mechulam recommends almond flour biscuits to ensure stable blood sugar levels.
According to Healthline, “Combining carbohydrate-rich foods (such as crackers) with a good source of tryptophan (such as cheese) helps increase tryptophan’s effectiveness in supporting sleep,” and serving 4 pieces of whole wheat crackers and one piece of cheddar cheese. Low fat, about 150 calories.
A refreshing vegetable dish with hummus
It is a refreshing and crunchy vegetable dish; Like: baby carrots, cherry tomatoes, and cucumbers, with hummus, “The perfect quick and easy midnight snack,” says registered dietitian Amanda Frankini, “A couple tablespoons of hummus can be enough to provide protein, fiber, and complete satisfaction.”
In one study, “melatonin levels in the blood increased 4-fold within two hours of eating two bananas.”
Bananas and nuts or peanut butter can be balanced snacks to maintain balanced blood sugar, which is essential for getting good sleep.
“Bananas contain potassium, which, in addition to complex carbohydrates, controls high blood sugar that can harm sleep,” says Prangini, adding that combining bananas with peanut butter at night is a healthy and satiating source of fat and tryptophan that can induce sleep.
For Metzeler, who recommends putting almond butter and bananas on whole-wheat bread, “combines protein, carbs and fat to beat a balanced snack before bed.”
Cherry and pistachio
A number of studies conducted on sour cherries have shown that snacking on them in the middle of the night can lead to better sleep, as they naturally contain melatonin. It can be combined with pistachios, which combine fat and protein in addition to some melatonin.
Cereals and milk
As milk contains calcium, which helps the body produce melatonin, a cup of warm milk is ideal for falling asleep after waking up at night.
Low-sugar whole grains can be added to milk for a light, filling and balanced meal to help maintain blood sugar levels.
Snacks from nuts
Frankini cautions against turning to chocolate or coffee as midnight snacks; Because they keep you awake longer, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios provide natural melatonin, protein, and magnesium to help you feel full and induce sleep.
What is the science related to the study of celestial bodies?? What are the career fields of an astronomy major?? Given the importance of this field in the Saudi labor market, astronomy is considered one of the most important specializations that a large group of individuals are interested in studying, so we will learn more about it in the following lines.
Science concerned with the study of celestial bodies
If you want to know Science concerned with the study of celestial bodies Remember this is astronomy and celestial bodies are all objects in the sky.
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These are represented by the Sun, Moon and planets, which move according to a certain system and influence each other in a certain way and in a certain proportion. Scientists study these bodies to learn about them. Movement and life and their effects on Earth.
What are the career fields for astronomy majors?
It is worth noting that the astronomy major is considered one of the broadest majors with many different and varied fields, as the astronomer can work alone as a researcher or in teams within university departments.
In addition to working in government research centers and national facilities, he studies the celestial bodies, the universe, and the Earth and tries to explain everything around them. One of the most important areas in which his studies and researches can be carried out is in the far reaches of the vast universe, and in science. Astronomy is as follows:
It is worth noting that an astronomer works in the field of cosmology, and the most important areas of his work are detailed below:
Study of celestial galaxies.
A theoretical study of cosmology through data provided by other astronomers.
Study of planets inside and outside the solar system.
Study of the Sun.
Read the stars.
Note that an astrophysicist performs many tasks related to analyzing space objects while writing theories about them. To help him understand the laws of the universe.
One of the most important tasks an astrophysicist does is administrative work related to the results of experiments, while he works on preparing all the presentations and writing articles related to the field of astronomy, while applying for grants to fund his projects. .
3- Researcher and University Professor
Note that astronomy is related to many specializations, and an astronomer can earn an academic degree that qualifies him to work as a university professor in academic institutions, while also teaching physics and observational astronomy.
Apart from cosmology, he can also serve as a department head in academic universities, and works in the research department of the university and uses all its resources to develop his research projects.
It is worth noting that the astronomer works with institutions and laboratories to conduct research to achieve a common research goal, and presents the results of the research he conducts in scientific conferences and publishes them through scientific articles. After the houses are reviewed by the teachers.
Many individuals want to learn about the science involved in astronomy, while learning all aspects of working in astronomy, which is considered one of the most important scientific and practical specialties.
When the weather is cold, the blood vessels in the body constrict to maintain the temperature. This constriction can lead to an increase in blood pressure. In winter, sunlight is generally less, which can lead to vitamin D deficiency. Its deficiency is linked to high blood pressure levels.Blood: Winter weather often restricts physical activity, leading to weight gain and high blood pressure, says a report published on “NDTV” website.
The report confirmed that high salt intake can lead to high blood pressureReducing your intake of salt and processed foods high in sodium can help lower your blood pressure. Eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, whole grains, lean proteins, and reducing saturated fat can help. It has a positive effect on blood pressure and here are the foods you can add to your diet to reduce high blood pressure in winter.
10 Foods to Add to Your Diet in Winters to Reduce High Blood Pressure:
1. Dark leafy vegetables
Foods like spinach, kale, and chard are rich in potassium, which helps lower blood pressure by counteracting the effects of sodium.
Oranges, grapefruit and lemons are high in vitamin C and antioxidants, which support cardiovascular health by reducing inflammation and improving blood vessel function.
Eating garlic in winter helps lower blood pressure due to an active compound called allicin that promotes relaxation of blood vessels and lowers high blood pressure.
These fatty fish are an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of heart disease.