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Carl Gauss.. “Prince of Mathematics” Germany honored with his image on one of its coins | encyclopedia



Carl Gauss.. “Prince of Mathematics” Germany honored with his image on one of its coins |  encyclopedia

Carl Gauss, a German mathematician, was one of the most important scientists of the 18th century, who made scientific contributions in many fields, including engineering, static electricity, geophysics, astronomy, optics, statistics, and algebra. Must have extensive knowledge of mathematics.

Carl has been described as “the greatest mathematician of antiquity” and was a perfectionist, many of whose works were unpublished but were discovered in his personal papers and diaries after his death in 1855.

Birth and Nurture

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss was born on April 30, 1777 in Brunswick, Germany. He was the only child of poor parents, his mother was called Dorothea Pence, and his father was Gebhard Dietrich Gauss.

Gauss’s mother did not record the date of her son’s birth, and she was illiterate, but she noted that he was born on Wednesday, 8 days before the Mirage celebration, and this celebration was 40 days after Easter, and later Gauss made a calculation to know his exact birth date.

Gass showed excellence and intelligence in mathematics from an early age and could perform detailed calculations in his mind, so his teacher Budner took care of that.

His father was a simple laborer who was busy with many jobs, but his mother devoted her life to him, so she took care of his early education and gave him to the Duke of Brunswick to receive a scholarship. He completed his education.

Carl Gauss was married twice and had 6 children from his two wives, his first marriage was to Elisabeth Johanna Rosina Ostoff, October 9, 1805, but she died 5 months after giving birth to their third son, Louis, and it is said. After his death Cass suffered a nervous breakdown and was deeply affected.

In 1806, he had a son, Joseph, in 1808, a daughter, Villemontene, and in 1809, Louise, from Johanna.

In 1810, he married Johanna’s close friend, Frederica Willemyn Feldke, also known as Mina, and had 3 children with her. She died on September 12, 1831, and he suffered from depression after her death.

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His children from Mina: Eugene, born 1811, Wilhelm, born 1813, and Therese, born 1816.

Among his children was a talented daughter Willeminen, but she died young in 1840.

Gauss’s relationship with his children was not strong, he disagreed with them, and they did not follow his approach to mathematics, his youngest daughter, Therese, took care of him and his household until his death. She did not marry until after his death.

Research and development

Carl Gauss attended St. Catherine’s Primary School at the age of seven, and it was during that period that his intelligence and brilliance in mathematics emerged, and he showed a unique ability to solve mathematical problems, and one day surprised his teacher and assistant. Able to collect integers from 1 to 100 in record time.

Gauss’s teacher was talented, he worked as a private tutor for him, and he applied for an advanced arithmetic course for him, so Gauss solved all his problems. In 1788, at the age of 11, Cass entered the Martino Katrini grammar school, where he excelled in mathematics and modern languages, as well as studying ancient Latin and Greek.

In 1792, Gauss enrolled at the Collège Carolinum (Technical University of Brunswick), sponsored by the Duke of Brunswick, who admired his mental abilities, where he completed his studies in mathematics.

Gauss completed his university studies with the patronage of the Duke of Brunswick, and his mother and teachers introduced him to him in 1891. At that point, his first important discoveries appeared, as he was able to construct a regular polygon with 17 sides. Just a ruler and compass.

In October 1795, Carl Gauss began his studies at the University of Göttingen, and received his doctorate in 1798. His doctoral thesis provided a proof of the fundamental theorem of algebra, and he later provided 3 important proofs of that result, known as “Gauss’s proof” for short.

Gauss’s personality was very keen on the quality of his work, he was devoted to his research, and he hated teaching, but despite this, many of his students became well-known mathematicians.

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His most important students included Richard Detkind, Bernhard Riemann and Friedrich Bessel, and his student Sophie Germain received her honorary degree under Cass’s tutelage after his death.

As for politics, Gauss was a supporter of the monarchy and rejected Napoleon and saw it as an extension of the Revolution.

Carl Gauss was so careful with his discoveries that he did not publish many of his works, instead publishing them after his death (Getty Images)

Gauss’s Scientific Contributions

In 1801, Carl Gauss published the first systematic book on algebraic number theory, and this book gave a detailed description of the solutions of “quadratic polynomials” in two variables of the integers, and this book was an impetus for the recognition of Gauss’ exceptional talent.

His great interest in mathematics led him to research, especially in German universities, where he was close to the Duke, which gave him great support and admiration in the scientific community.

One of his most important astronomical achievements was the discovery of the asteroid Ceres, the first discovery of which was made by the Italian astronomer Giuseppe Piazza in 1800, but the asteroid disappeared before enough observations were made to calculate its orbit.

In 1807 he was appointed director of the Göttingen Laboratory, after which he developed the method of “least squares”, obtaining solutions for binomial equations, and the Bell-curve method (fuzzy error curve).

In 1830 he became interested in terrestrial magnetism, and participated in the first global survey of the Earth’s magnetic field.

In 1831, Gauss discovered new knowledge of magnetism with physics professor Wilhelm Weber, and the two developed the first electromagnetic telegraph in 1833.

Gauss and Weber founded the “Magnetic Club” in which the work of measuring the Earth’s magnetic field was carried out in various parts of the world.

After his colleague Weber was dismissed in 1837, Gauss’s research was dismissed despite his interactions with other scientists. He often pointed out and criticized flaws in their work or claimed to have discovered them beforehand.

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His name (gauss) was given to the electromagnetic unit used to measure magnetic induction, and he developed a method for measuring the horizontal strength of a magnetic field, and that method was used until the middle of the 20th century.

He wrote about graphology and projection theory of graphs, and he has unpublished insights discovered by his friends about complex tasks and the nature of coordination.

Gauss hid some of his discoveries from his contemporaries, including oval functions, and he did not publish the calculation of the differential equation that explained the series, and he explained that the series was called “the series above geometry”.

In addition, Kaz was fluent in several languages ​​and learned Russian at the age of 62. He had a hobby of collecting books and was interested in projects that he felt were important to the community.

Awards and Honours

  • Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London.
  • Prize of the Danish Academy of Sciences in 1823.
  • The medal was created in 1856 to honor King George V of Hanover after his death.
  • His portrait was featured on the German 10-mark banknote.
  • In 2005 it celebrated the Year of Cass in collaboration with the University of Göttingen and the Cass Society, and included exhibitions and a series of lectures.

His death

Carl Friedrich Gauss died of a heart attack in Göttingen, Kingdom of Hanover (now part of Lower Saxony, Germany) on February 23, 1855, aged 78, and was buried in the Albanifredhof Cemetery.

After his death, he discovered many of his ideas in his personal papers and notes, and Gauss did not publish all of his achievements, but reserved some of them for publication, and he was keen that his works and inventions should be fully and comprehensively published.

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Finding the genetic causes of a rare cancer affecting the kidney



Finding the genetic causes of a rare cancer affecting the kidney

An international team led by researchers at the British Wellcome Sanger Institute has revealed a new drug target that could act as an alternative treatment for kidney cancer if doctors don’t recommend surgery. According to the results of a study published in the journal Nature Communications (Monday), this rare cancerous form of kidney tumor is called Renin tumor, and its complete genetic code has been understood for the first time.

Reninoma is one of the rarest cancers in humans, with only about 100 cases reported worldwide. Although it can usually be treated with surgery, it can cause severe high blood pressure and develop into malignant tumors that can spread.

There are still no medical treatments for kidney tumors, as treatment management only involves surgery. Before the results of the latest study came out, it was not known what genetic error caused these types of tumors.

Reninoma is one of the rarest cancerous tumors in humans (Public Domain).

According to the study’s co-principal investigator, Dr. Sam Bagadi, Wellcome Senior Research Fellow at the Wellcome Sanger Institute: “The significance of our results is that we have succeeded in discovering the essence of this type of tumor. Based on the fact that it is so rare, there have been no previous studies on it.

He added to Asharq Al-Awsat: “Not only have we been able to understand the genetic code of a kidney tumor, but we have also shown that drugs can counteract what triggers it, and this may be important for patients whose tumors cannot be removed. through surgery.”

Researchers have identified a specific error in the genetic code of a known cancer gene called NOTCH1, which is behind the development of this rare cancer.

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“This is the first time we have identified the causes of kidney tumors, and we believe our work will continue to pave the way for new treatments,” said lead study author Taryn Trescher at the Wellcome Sanger Institute.

The team has already studied two cancer samples, one from a young adult and the other from a child, using advanced genetic techniques. Their findings suggest that existing drugs that actually target this gene could be used as a potential solution for treating kidney tumors in patients for whom surgery is not a viable option.

Dr Tansina Chowdhury, lead researcher on the study at Great Ormond Street Hospital in the UK, explained: “Rare forms of kidney cancer known as renal tumors do not respond to traditional anti-cancer treatments. “Currently the only known treatment is surgery.” She added: “There is a specific, well-known gene that drives this rare cancer. Our study shows that the studied gene has “If we use drugs that are already known to affect this gene, we can deal with it without the need for invasive medical technology like surgery.”

Here Bahjati said: “Rare cancers are a huge challenge for research and analysis. Patients with other types of tumors may not benefit from them. “But here is a powerful example of cutting-edge science that is changing our understanding of an extremely rare type of tumor: a discovery that could have immediate clinical benefits for patients.” He added: “We will continue to study these extremely rare tumors to understand their genetic code, which we hope will reveal more new therapeutic approaches.”

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Climate change: Saudi Arabia warns against rush to abandon traditional fuels – Financial Times



Climate change: Saudi Arabia warns against rush to abandon traditional fuels – Financial Times

image source, Good pictures

We begin our tour of British newspapers with Amy Williams in New York and Miles McCormick in Calgary at the Financial Times on what they describe as deep tensions and divisions over the oil and gas industry’s role in combating climate change. Recent events in New York, US and Calgary, Canada this week cast doubt on the likelihood of an agreement at the upcoming United Nations COP28 conference.

According to the article, when world leaders and senior officials meet in New York in ten weeks ahead of the United Nations’ COP28 climate summit, there is a deep divide between those who support and those who urge the expansion of fossil fuel use. Stopping all forms of growth and expansion is critical to achieving stability in the world.

In December, the UN The authors quoted Dan Jorgensen, Denmark’s minister for development cooperation and global climate policy, who is leading discussions on new climate targets that could be agreed at the climate change conference COP28, as saying: “Countries agree that we must move. Move forward on this issue.” “But the bad news is that we’re far from reaching an agreement. We need to address the larger problem of burning fossil fuels.”

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What are the most common symptoms of breast cancer in men?



What are the most common symptoms of breast cancer in men?

Breast cancer is a disease that affects women, especially with a high number of infections, but in fact it affects men as well, and many believe that it leads to death among them.

she explained NHS The NHS in England says that 85 men die each year in Britain from breast cancer, and that the malignancy affects around 400 men annually.

The charity Breast Cancer Now also reports that “at least one person is diagnosed with the disease every day”.

According to the website “Mayo ClinicMedically, male breast cancer is “a rare cancer that begins with the growth of cells in the breast tissue of men.”

Breast cancer cells disrupt the immune system

Australian researchers announced Monday that breast cancer cells have powerfully destroyed the body’s immune system, allowing the disease to invade patients’ bones.

“Breast cancer in men usually affects older people, but it can occur at any age,” he pointed out.

Those diagnosed with “male breast cancer” at an early stage have a good chance of recovery.

What are the symptoms?

The symptoms of this disease are as follows:

A painless lump or thickening of breast tissue and changes in the skin of the breast, such as sagging, wrinkling, redness or peeling.
Changes in the nipples, such as redness or peeling, or one of the nipples turning inward.

The causes of these malignant tumors are still unclear, but doctors define “male breast cancer” as occurring when “some breast cells divide faster than healthy cells.”

Accumulated cells form a tumor, which can spread (metastasize) to nearby tissues, lymph nodes, or other parts of the body.

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According to the website “Web MedicineThe disease can be diagnosed through a clinical examination, which is done by feeling the chest area of ​​the person in search of any tumors or changes in the chest tissue, and the doctor evaluates the size, structure and depth of the tumors present.

It can be diagnosed with radiographic imaging such as X-rays or ultrasound to create clear images of the breast tissue.

Only a biopsy is used to “confirm” a diagnosis of breast cancer in men. This is done by taking a sample of the tumor tissue and examining it to confirm whether the tumor is cancerous or benign.

Treatment usually involves surgery to remove as much of the visible tumor as possible, along with some of the surrounding healthy tissue.

Other treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be recommended depending on the condition.

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