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Global boiling period.. Why are scientists looking for extraterrestrial oceans?



Global boiling period.. Why are scientists looking for extraterrestrial oceans?

Introduction to Translation

Humans have lived with a variety of life forms for hundreds of thousands of years, billions of years ago on the back of a giant wonderland, a planet that is astonishingly different from any other planet scientists have ever discovered. , and that difference appears – most obvious – in the water of the planet, which – because of its abundance – is called the blue planet. But these days we are going through what we can call a “great tragedy” related to the warming of our planet. In this article, “The Atlantic” editor Marina Gorin connects two seemingly distant things, the era of global warming we’re currently going through and scientists’ efforts to learn about other planets like our blue one. May we know that the earth has no other refuge than this very small, fragile place, in that vast universe!

Translation text

Currently, the ocean off the coast of South Florida is experiencing a long, hot summer, with temperatures hovering near 90 degrees Fahrenheit (32.2 Celsius) for several weeks (article written Aug. 2) before dropping to 80 degrees (26.6 Celsius). That means the third largest barrier reef in the world today is damaged and dying. Because of this confusion around the world, scientists decided to collect samples from coral reefs and transfer them to cool and safe laboratory tanks.

Complicating matters further, a section along the coast topped 100 degrees Fahrenheit (37.7 Celsius) last month, which makes more sense in a hot tub than in the ocean. As a result, some Florida coastal residents have decided to give up regular ocean swimming because it’s not as appealing to them as it once was. Other parts of the world are also starting to get regular ocean heat waves.

Ocean heat waves

According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 44 percent of ocean water is currently experiencing a sharp rise in temperature. Contrary to expectations, this sharp temperature rise did not surprise experts, because the 2023 El Nino event (a phenomenon that occurs in the oceans due to an increase in surface water temperature, which affects the weather and climate in many areas around the world).

To confirm this, Dillon Amaya, a research scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Physical Sciences Laboratory, says, “Climate change is the main reason these ocean heat waves are becoming more common every day.” June had already broken all records for global ocean temperatures, and then came July, which was even heavier and hotter in temperature. So according to an experimental forecast system run by Amaya and his colleagues at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, half the world’s oceans could face a heat wave by September.

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Earth is known to be an ocean-hugging planet, and even with our best telescopes we’ve yet to observe anything similar in the universe, so we don’t know exactly how rare and how hard our planet might be. Something like that will happen again. However, here we are not shy about making the situation worse, slowly and gradually raising the temperature of the oceans and changing the basic composition of the Earth’s ecosystem.

Oceans have been able to absorb excess heat generated by greenhouse gas emissions in recent decades, one of the most effective ways to save the planet and protect us from the effects of climate change. Humans may experience scorching heat on land this summer, but the future of our planet — and therefore our future — is closely tied to the ocean.

Astronomers have spent years searching for worlds outside our solar system that might have oceans on their surfaces in the hope that they might be habitable homes. Of the more than 5,000 planets that have been discovered, scientists have discovered that only a few of them are located in the habitable zone (that is, at a reasonable distance from their star that allows water to be available in liquid form, or it is not too close. Water evaporates from the surface of the star, or it is not too far away) and it freezes. ). So far, researchers have not confirmed that any rocky Earth-sized planets have liquid water on their surfaces.

The dilemma of finding water

Research scientist Krista Soderland studied Jupiter’s moon Europa, which may harbor a salty ocean beneath its icy surface that could be home to microbial life. (Shutterstock)

Part of the problem is that it is difficult to detect oceans on planets outside our solar system with the technology available to researchers today. Charles Cadieux, an astronomer at the University of Montreal in Canada, says: “Although our planet is full of oceans, if we were to observe it as a planet, we would not be able to observe the water inside it. Outside of our solar system.”

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There are other oceans in our solar system, but they are hidden on the surface of the icy moons (which are distinguished by their ice-covered surfaces) and their exact composition is still unknown to us. Christa Soderland, a research scientist at the University of Texas at Austin in the United States, has studied Jupiter’s moon Europa, which hides a salty ocean beneath its icy surface that could be home to microbial life.

Soderland spends her days wondering about this world that embraces the ocean, but at the same time she worries about the world she lives in: “I really can’t understand the contradiction between the scientific findings regarding the icy moons and the oceans beneath their surface, and the concern about climate change and its impact. ” Earth and life on the planet. When I think about short and quick changes now, I wonder what the consequences will be for my children and how bad it will be. .”

Next year, NASA is scheduled to launch the Soderland mission, a spacecraft that will reach the moon Europa in 2030, carrying a plaque inscribed with a poem by the famous American poet Ada Lemon: Oh, the second moon! We, too, are made of water, made of vast seas so attractive.” It is true that this idea of ​​the connection and proximity of a strange universe unknown to us is wonderful and sweet, but re-reading this passage of the poem you may have the feeling that it is more of a luxury than a surprise. Our planet is made of vast seas, But if those oceans overheat, melting the shells and skeletons of sea creatures and allowing toxic algae to spread, those oceans deserve and beg for relief.

Some researchers believe that water arrived with asteroids that bombarded Earth billions of years ago and carried this water, while others believe that this water has been trapped within the planet since its first formation. (Getty Images)

Our planet did not begin with the presence of oceans, but rather after Earth cooled from its molten years. As for the question of how Earth got its water, that remains an open question. Some researchers believe that the water arrived with asteroids that bombarded the Earth billions of years ago and carried this water in, while others believe that the water was trapped inside the planet since it formed from the mountain-sized rocks that surrounded the Earth. The early solar system.

This September, a NASA spacecraft will bring back samples from an asteroid that hasn’t changed since that cosmic era, and these bits and pieces of rock could reveal the most important information about our existence, and scientists hope to reveal clues about these forces. The origin of Earth’s oceans and flooding them with chemical compounds that eventually led to the ignition of life on the planet.

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Global boiling point

In the face of climate change, our enthusiasm for new discoveries must be tempered by sadness, because as we learn more about how our planet’s oceans formed, we expose our planet’s waters to scorching heat. A major concern is that warming oceans are melting ice caps, intensifying hurricanes and destroying fishing industries. Karen St. Germain, director of NASA’s Earth Sciences Division, says of the situation: “Earth has seen many changes since its inception, but now we’re driving it toward the abyss. We’ve never seen it before.”

Astronomers refer to the habitable zone around the star as the “Goldilocks” zone, or formally the “habitable zone,” where the climate is moderate, neither too hot nor too cold, but well suited for the flow of liquid water. Planet on the surface. Fortunately, Earth is just the right distance from our Sun in the habitable zone, and Earth will remain in this favorable position for a few billion years until the Sun warms enough to evaporate the oceans.

But on the other hand, floods, droughts, wildfires, hot days that can burn your skin, and seas that can kill fish and people alike make Earth uninhabitable. That’s why the Secretary-General of the United Nations declared last week: “The era of global warming is over, and global boiling has begun.”

Ultimately, climate scientists cautioned that global warming is not a scientific term and that officials have been predicting the current series of extreme weather events years in advance, and that what is happening now is not a small or normal change. , one with rather disastrous effects and consequences. However, we can take our motivation from the word “boiling” and urgently address the water issue, because it has become difficult to see what is happening around us, but we feel that everything is fine here. .


Translated by: Somaya Zahar

This statement has been translated Atlantic It does not necessarily refer to the Maidan site.

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Climate change: Saudi Arabia warns against rush to abandon traditional fuels – Financial Times



Climate change: Saudi Arabia warns against rush to abandon traditional fuels – Financial Times

image source, Good pictures

We begin our tour of British newspapers with Amy Williams in New York and Miles McCormick in Calgary at the Financial Times on what they describe as deep tensions and divisions over the oil and gas industry’s role in combating climate change. Recent events in New York, US and Calgary, Canada this week cast doubt on the likelihood of an agreement at the upcoming United Nations COP28 conference.

According to the article, when world leaders and senior officials meet in New York in ten weeks ahead of the United Nations’ COP28 climate summit, there is a deep divide between those who support and those who urge the expansion of fossil fuel use. Stopping all forms of growth and expansion is critical to achieving stability in the world.

In December, the UN The authors quoted Dan Jorgensen, Denmark’s minister for development cooperation and global climate policy, who is leading discussions on new climate targets that could be agreed at the climate change conference COP28, as saying: “Countries agree that we must move. Move forward on this issue.” “But the bad news is that we’re far from reaching an agreement. We need to address the larger problem of burning fossil fuels.”

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What are the most common symptoms of breast cancer in men?



What are the most common symptoms of breast cancer in men?

Breast cancer is a disease that affects women, especially with a high number of infections, but in fact it affects men as well, and many believe that it leads to death among them.

she explained NHS The NHS in England says that 85 men die each year in Britain from breast cancer, and that the malignancy affects around 400 men annually.

The charity Breast Cancer Now also reports that “at least one person is diagnosed with the disease every day”.

According to the website “Mayo ClinicMedically, male breast cancer is “a rare cancer that begins with the growth of cells in the breast tissue of men.”

Breast cancer cells disrupt the immune system

Australian researchers announced Monday that breast cancer cells have powerfully destroyed the body’s immune system, allowing the disease to invade patients’ bones.

“Breast cancer in men usually affects older people, but it can occur at any age,” he pointed out.

Those diagnosed with “male breast cancer” at an early stage have a good chance of recovery.

What are the symptoms?

The symptoms of this disease are as follows:

A painless lump or thickening of breast tissue and changes in the skin of the breast, such as sagging, wrinkling, redness or peeling.
Changes in the nipples, such as redness or peeling, or one of the nipples turning inward.

The causes of these malignant tumors are still unclear, but doctors define “male breast cancer” as occurring when “some breast cells divide faster than healthy cells.”

Accumulated cells form a tumor, which can spread (metastasize) to nearby tissues, lymph nodes, or other parts of the body.

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According to the website “Web MedicineThe disease can be diagnosed through a clinical examination, which is done by feeling the chest area of ​​the person in search of any tumors or changes in the chest tissue, and the doctor evaluates the size, structure and depth of the tumors present.

It can be diagnosed with radiographic imaging such as X-rays or ultrasound to create clear images of the breast tissue.

Only a biopsy is used to “confirm” a diagnosis of breast cancer in men. This is done by taking a sample of the tumor tissue and examining it to confirm whether the tumor is cancerous or benign.

Treatment usually involves surgery to remove as much of the visible tumor as possible, along with some of the surrounding healthy tissue.

Other treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be recommended depending on the condition.

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Today, Monday 9/25/2023, expected temperature in Egypt



Today, Monday 9/25/2023, expected temperature in Egypt

Written by Mahmoud Ragheb

Monday, September 25, 2023 at 12:00 AM

Expect a body Meteorology According to the weather forecast, there will be a slight rise in temperature today Monday, hot weather during the day in Greater Cairo, Lower Egypt and the northern coasts, hot in South Sinai and southern Upper Egypt, pleasant at night in the north of the country to northern Upper Egypt, moderate in southern Sinai and southern Upper Egypt.

The Bureau of Meteorology expects wind activity in some areas today and water fog in Greater Cairo, Lower Egypt, Northern Beaches, Canal Cities, Central Sinai, and some roads leading there from 4:70am. and Northern Upper Egypt. Tomorrow night will see a decrease in humidity… In most areas, this will add to the feeling of low temperatures.

As for the temperature today, Monday: Great Cairo 35 degrees, Minor 24 degrees, Alexandria 31, Minor 23, Metrou 30, Minor 22, Great Sohaq 38, Minor 23 degrees, Great Qana 41 degrees, Minor 25 degrees, Great Aswan 42 degrees. A minimum of 27 degrees.

Following is a report of temperature in cities and capitals in the governorates of the Republic:

Minimum temperature in Cairo is 24 and maximum is 35

Temperature in administrative capital, minimum 24 and maximum 35

Temperature on October 6, minimum 23 and maximum 36

The minimum temperature in Benha is 24 and the maximum is 35

The minimum temperature in Tamanhur is 24 and the maximum temperature is 34

The minimum temperature in Wadi Nadrun is 23 and the maximum is 36

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Temperatures in Kafr El-Sheikh, minimum 23 and maximum 34

Minimum temperature in Mansurah is 24 and maximum is 35

The minimum temperature in Zagazig is 25 and the maximum temperature is 36

The minimum temperature in Shibin Al-Qom is 24 and the maximum is 35

The minimum temperature in Thanda is 24 and the maximum is 34

Temperature in Damietta, minimum 25 and maximum 31

The minimum temperature in Port Side is 24 and the maximum is 32

Minimum temperature in Ismailia is 24 and maximum is 37

The minimum temperature in Suez is 23 and the maximum temperature is 36

The minimum temperature in Arish is 24 and the maximum is 32

Temperature in Rafah: Min 25 and Max 31

The minimum temperature in Ras Chitr is 23 and the maximum temperature is 36

Temperature in Nakhl: Min 20, Max 36

Temperatures in St. Catharine, minimum 16 and maximum 33

Minimum temperature will be 25 and maximum 34

The minimum temperature in Thapa is 25 and the maximum temperature is 34

Temperature in Sharm El Sheikh, minimum 28 and maximum 37

Minimum temperature in Alexandria is 23 and maximum is 31

The minimum temperature in El Alamein is 23 and the maximum is 31

Temperature in Matrouh, minimum 22 and maximum 30

Minimum temperature in Salum is 19 and maximum is 30

Temperature in Shiva: Min 20 and Max 37

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Minimum temperature in Hurghada is 27 and maximum is 38

The minimum temperature in Marsa Alam is 27 and the maximum is 37

The minimum temperature in Shaladin is 27 and the maximum is 37

Temperatures in Halayeip, minimum 27 and maximum 34

The minimum temperature in Abu Ramad is 28 and the maximum is 36

The minimum temperature in Ras Hatarapa is 29 and the maximum temperature is 35

The minimum temperature in Fayoum is 24 and the maximum temperature is 35

The minimum temperature in Beni Suef is 23 and the maximum temperature is 36

Minimum temperature in Minya is 21 and maximum is 37

Minimum temperature in Asyut is 22 and maximum is 38

Sohak has a minimum temperature of 23 and a maximum of 38

The minimum temperature in Kena is 25 and the maximum is 41

Temperature in Luxor, minimum 26 and maximum 41

Minimum temperature in Aswan is 27 and maximum is 42

Temperature in New Valley, low 20’s and high 40’s

Temperature in Abu Simbel, minimum 26 and maximum 40

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