United Nations data indicate that 55% of the world’s population lives in urban areas today, and this percentage is expected to increase to 68% by 2050, or about 2.5 billion people. As cities around the world continue to expand and have fewer resources, rapid urbanization requires a new thinking that supports transition to more sustainable, smarter and greener cities. In light of the above, the world in our time is seeing a major shift towards cities that have renewed the way we have lived for centuries and cities that have contributed to the challenges posed by the problem of urbanization. By adopting integrated and automated information and communication technology, smart cities aim to improve the functioning of cities, improve economic growth, achieve sustainability goals and improve the quality of life of all. Also read: How does Egypt plan to establish dozens of smart cities to accommodate the expected population growth? Nanotechnology in smart cities In general, the idea of smart cities includes highly efficient transportation systems with minimal impact on the environment, low-energy residential buildings and the provision of better management public services such as gas, water and electricity. Currently, most cities in the world
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