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The Montrooks Conference, or abbreviated Montrooks Conference on the Strait of Straits, was signed into law in Montreux in 1936, giving Turkey control over the Strait of Phosphorus and Tortonelles, and regulating the naval fleet.
The Montreux Convention guarantees the free movement of civilian vessels during peacetime and restricts the passage of naval vessels that do not belong to the Black Sea.
The terms of the treaty have been the subject of controversy for years, especially over Soviet military access to the Mediterranean.
Signed at the Montreux Palace in Switzerland on July 20, 1936, the treaty allowed Turkey to rehabilitate the strait, which came into force on November 9, 1936 and was signed into the League of Nations agreement on December 11, 1936. This is still valid. .
Strait of Phosphorus and Tartanelles
In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the treaty was one of a series of treaties seeking to resolve the long-standing maritime dispute over who would control the key strategic link between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean.
In 1923, the Treaty of Lausanne disarmed Tortonelles and, under the supervision of the International Straits Committee of the League of Nations, opened the strait for unrestricted civilian and military transport.
But in the late 1930s, the strategic situation in the Mediterranean changed with the rise of fascist Italy, which controlled the Greek-populated Dodecanese islands off the west coast of Turkey and built forts at Rhodes, Leros and Kos.
The Turks feared that Italy would seek to use access to the strait to expand its power over Anatolia and the Black Sea. There were also fears about the Bulgarian Reconstruction.
Although Turkey was not allowed to strengthen the strait, it did so in secret.
In April 1935, the Turkish government sent a lengthy diplomatic memorandum to the signatories of the Lawson Treaty, proposed a conference on a new regime agreement for the strait, and asked the League of Nations to allow the rebuilding of the Tortonelles forts.
In a memorandum, Turkish Foreign Minister Davik Rushti Aras explained that the international situation had changed dramatically since 1923. At that time, Europe was moving towards disarmament and an international guarantee for the protection of the strait. With the onset of the Abyssinian crisis in 1934 and 1935, Germany’s condemnation of the Treaty of Versailles and international moves toward restructuring the guarantee of protection against the total insecurity of the Strait disappeared.
Australia, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Greece, Japan, Romania, the Soviet Union, Turkey, the United Kingdom and Yugoslavia all agreed to attend the talks, which began in June in Montreux, Switzerland. 22, 1936. Two major powers were not represented: Italy, its expansionist and occupation policies were pushed into the conference, at first it refused to attend, and the United States refused to send an observer.
Turkey, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union each put forward their own plans, which were primarily aimed at protecting their interests. The British wanted a continuation of the relatively traditional approach, while the Turks sought a liberal system to reassert their control over the strait and proposed a system that would guarantee complete independence for the Soviets to pass.
With the support of France, they tried to withdraw the Soviet navy from the Mediterranean, as they might have threatened important shipping lanes to India, Egypt, and the Far East. In the end, some of the British demands were met, and the Soviet Union succeeded in securing some exemptions from military controls imposed on non-Black Sea countries, including the Soviet Union.
The treaty was ratified by all who attended the conference, except Germany, which did not sign the Lausanne Agreement, and came into force on November 9, 1936, with reservations from Japan.
As stated in the preamble, the treaty rescinded sections of the Straits under the Lawson Treaty, which provided for the militarization of the Greek islands of Lemnos and Smetrock and the Dortanelles, Marmara Sea, and Phosphorus. And the Turkish islands of Amrs, Paschada and Dawshan.
The conference consists of 29 articles, four appendices and one protocol. Articles (2-7) deal with the route of merchant ships. Articles 8-22 are about passing warships.
The basic principle of freedom of navigation and navigation is set out in Articles 1 and 2. Article 1 states that “international treaty parties affirm and uphold the principle of freedom of navigation and navigation across the Strait.” Article 2 states that “merchant ships will enjoy complete freedom to navigate and navigate the strait during peacetime, day and night, under any flag and under any type of goods.”
The International Strait Commission was abolished, and the Turkish army handed over complete control of the strait and re-established the Tortonelles. Turkey allowed all foreign warships to close the strait during the war or when threatened with occupation. It also recognized the refusal of merchant ships from countries involved in the war with Turkey.
Under Section 12, Black Sea nations are allowed to send their submarines across the strait with advance notice until their ships are built off the Black Sea, purchased or shipped for maintenance.
Less regulatory rules applicable to Black Sea countries The real peculiarity of the Soviet Union was that it was the only Black Sea country with a large number of ships or submarines, apart from Turkey. Civilian aircraft were allowed to cross between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, but only through routes permitted by the Turkish government.
The terms of the treaty were largely a reflection of the international situation of the mid-1930s. It deeply served Turkish and Soviet interests, helping the Turks regain military control of the strait and consolidate Soviet dominance in the Black Sea.
The deal was in effect, but not without controversy. It was repeatedly challenged by the Soviet Union during World War II and the Cold War. In early 1939, Stalin sought to reopen the Strait issue and proposed joint control of the Turkish-Soviet Strait, “a small country [أي تركيا] With Britain’s support, it’s carrying a superpower in its throat and giving it no way out. ”
After the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Treaty between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov told his German counterparts that he wanted military control of the Soviet Strait and established its own military base there.
The Soviets reopened the issue in 1945 and 1946, and those who signed with Montrooks at a special conference called for a reconsideration of the Montreux Convention.[1945மற்றும்1946ஆம்ஆண்டுகளில்சோவியத்துகள்பிரச்சினையைமீண்டும்திறந்தனர்மேலும்மாண்ட்ரூக்ஸ்கையொப்பமிடுபவர்கள்இல்லாதசிறப்புமாநாட்டில்மாண்ட்ரீக்ஸ்மாநாட்டைமறுபரிசீலனைசெய்யவேண்டும்என்றும்ஜலசந்தியின்கட்டுப்பாட்டைநிரந்தரசோவியத்இராணுவஇருப்புடன்பகிர்ந்துகொள்ளவேண்டும்என்றும்கோரினர்
Despite the Soviet “strategy of tension”, Turkey vehemently refused. For many years after World War II, the Soviets used restrictions on the number of foreign warships, ensuring that one of their ships remained permanently in the strait, and prevented any other country except Turkey from sending warships through the strait.
Soviet pressure was extended to full demands for the amendment of the Montreux Conference that led to the Turkish Strait crisis of 1946, forcing Turkey to abandon its policy of neutrality. In 1947, it received US military and economic assistance under the Truman Doctrine (regulation) and in 1952 joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization with Greece.
How does this affect Russia?
Russia and Ukraine are in the Black Sea, along with Romania and NATO members Bulgaria and Georgia. Under the Montreux Agreement, Turkey could restrict the movement of Russian warships from the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea via its strait, but under a conditional agreement that would allow warships of warring nations to cross over if they returned to their home base.
“If the militant’s ship returns to its port, there will be exceptions. We will transparently enforce all the terms of the Montreux Agreement,” said Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu, adding that the exception should not be abused.
Mustafa Aidin, chairman of the Turkish Council for International Relations, said the move would be symbolic. “Russia has enough gunpowder in the Black Sea and it makes no sense for NATO nations to intervene,” he added, adding that “Russia has absolute sovereignty over the waters.”
Serhat Guvenk, a professor of international relations at Kadir Haas University in Istanbul, said Moscow could feel the heat if the war continued because Russia had already moved units from the Baltic Sea and completed its naval structure in the Black Sea. Started.
Why did Turkey declare conflict a war?
Gowing said he did not expect Turkey to make its decision quickly, but Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zhelensky pushed through the situation by thanking Turkey in advance for its support through his Twitter account.
Turkey has confirmed that it has historically respected the agreement and will continue to do so.
Cowenk said the agreement was in Ankara’s interest, as it supported Turkey during the war. Any exceptions to please Russia could affect the long-term credibility of the agreement.
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