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Why do we lose vehicles on the moon and how do we recover them? | Science



Why do we lose vehicles on the moon and how do we recover them?  |  Science

Various space agencies periodically send “robots” and robotic vehicles to explore the Moon, planets, and other celestial bodies to improve our understanding of the environment and resources in various parts of the Solar System.

Recently, researchers from the University of Toronto’s Institute for Space Studies and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory conducted a study to explore strategies that could improve the efficiency and success of lunar exploration using solar-powered vehicles.

Their paper, published on the Archives website – which is designed for the temporary publication of scientific research – presents a new approach to enable solar-powered vehicles to safely exit permanently shadowed areas on the Moon.

Risky bidding

“In recent years, many countries have shown interest in exploring the South Pole of the Moon, including the United States, China, India, Russia and others,” Oliver Lamar, the researcher who led the study, told

Solar-powered rovers can have many advantages in terms of energy efficiency, although they are limited by their dependence on sunlight to operate. Some areas of the Moon are permanently in shadow, and the rover’s dependence on sunlight could prevent them from exploring these areas and leaving safely as they run out of energy during their mission.

The last of those vehicles that tried to land on the south pole of the moon – which is the side of the moon that is always shadowed – was the Russian spacecraft “Luna 25”, which crashed on August 20, already on its way. The land, and the vehicle exposed may be the same.

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Therefore, Lamarre et al. The main goal of the latest work is to calculate the probability that solar-powered vehicles will be lost while exploring these shadowy regions of the Moon. Additionally, the team wanted to come up with an approach that would help solar vehicles complete their missions safely.

Refund Policy

Lamar explained that we first need to define what it means for a solar-powered rover to be safe at the moon’s south pole, and to do that, we need to determine where and at what time the rover is in the lunar shadow region. Its mission, and how much power is left in its batteries.

It indicates the status of the vehicle and whether or not it will enter hibernation before its next task. Then, the rover is programmed online for steps it can take to get the situation it is in, to increase its chance of action.

The planning method outlined by Lamarre and colleagues is known as the recovery policy, which is essentially a backup strategy that allows the vehicle to maximize its chances of getting “safe,” reaching areas of sunlight and thereby recharging its battery. Calculating this refund policy is challenging, the researchers show in their paper. Because it requires many approximations, which, if incorrect, can affect the reliability of the overall predictions.

At the Moon’s south pole, sunlight is most powerful; Where nearby mountains and craters can cast large shadows on the surface, if the rover is slightly behind schedule than the hard policy, it could miss an important solar charging period. The same is true if they are slightly ahead of schedule than policy assumes.

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Benefits of Refund Policy

The proposed approach benefits researchers in several ways. Because it’s a step toward having long-range mission planning mechanisms that anticipate risks for solar-powered rovers.

Additionally, this approach will become a useful tool for human operators as they develop new lunar South Pole rover missions, where it can be used to select a landing site, plan and predict hazards, and more, or to support ongoing missions. Earth.

The approach was tested using orbital data from a lunar crater, and the team used NASA’s sunlight maps to then apply their technology to several regions at the lunar south pole. Long-range navigation algorithms for hazard prediction. To explore the lunar south pole using solar powered vehicles.

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Ministry of Health reveals number of coronavirus infections within a week



Ministry of Health reveals number of coronavirus infections within a week

Today, Friday, in its weekly bulletin, the Ministry of Health and Social Security (Covid-19) announced that a total of 205 new infections have been recorded, while no deaths have been recorded.

In its weekly bulletin of (Covid-19) results covering the period from September 16 to September 22, 2023, the ministry highlighted that the number of people vaccinated reached 24 million and the number of people who received the first dose reached 924 thousand 167. The number of people vaccinated with the second dose increased by 23 million to 426 thousand 39, and a total of 6 million 886 thousand 744 received the third dose of antiviral vaccine to 61 thousand 121. Those who received the fourth level of reminiscence.

The ministry added that since the first case was reported on March 2, 2020, the weekly “positive, new infections with the virus brought the number of confirmed infections in the Kingdom to one million, 276 thousand 635”. Rate” is approximately 5.6 percent.

Casablanca-Settat (62), Rabat-Salé-Kenitra (79), Fes-Meknes (12), Souze-Massa (18), Beni Mellal-Kenifra (10) and The. Orient Region (2). , Marrakesh-Safi (20), Dra-Tafilalet (1), and Tangier-Tetouan-Al Hoceima (1).

With no deaths reported in the past week, the total number of deaths is estimated at 16,297 (a general mortality index of 1.3 percent).

The total number of active cases reached 250 and one active case was registered during the same period.

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Solidarity launches campaign for early detection of cervical cancer and reproductive health



Solidarity launches campaign for early detection of cervical cancer and reproductive health

By Medhat Wahba

Friday, September 22, 2023 01:21 PM

Social Unity Minister Dr. Nevin Al-Kabaj began his journey to Alexandria Governorate today, Friday, to launch the campaign.A journey of a thousand kilometersBy opening the “Reproductive Health and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer” clinic, the focus is on early detection of cervical cancer and reproductive health..

The Minister of Social Unity confirmed that the “Thousand Kilometer Journey” is scheduled to start today from Alexandria Governorate and continue for two days, from there to 9 Governorates of Beni Souf, Minya, Assiut and Sohaq. , Qana, Luxor and Aswan for two days in each governorate, and finally its activities will end in Cairo Governorate on January 5th and 6th next year..

Al-Kabbaj added that the trip targets three activities, the first of which is related to awareness, where social pioneers in those governorates will be trained to improve awareness and their medical awareness. The second part of the trip is related to training the medical staff of the clinics. In these governorates, “Reproductive Health and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer” has been prepared, where doctors and nurses will be trained on the use of various family planning methods. and the use of the cervical speculum to ensure the delivery of clinical care with high efficiency through workshops and clinical conferences..

The third part of the campaign is economic empowerment, as a bazaar will be established in each governorate where the campaign travels with the aim of promoting their products to women producers and small enterprises..

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Scientists are tracking a tree in Brazil that was thought to have died out 185 years ago



Scientists are tracking a tree in Brazil that was thought to have died out 185 years ago

I retired at 100… A centenarian talks about the importance of “being busy at work” to live a long life.

Madeleine Balto recently retired at the age of 100, having worked for more than 80 years – from the age of 18 to 99. According to a CNBC report, Balto believes work has contributed to his longevity.

Balto says of his previous job: “It kept me busy, and I enjoyed the work… As for retirement, I don’t really like it.”

The Balto family started an electric sign manufacturing business in Chicago, with Madeline responsible for office work. She often interacted with customers and it was her favorite job.

She said: “I loved interacting with people… and I was the only one in the office doing all the office work, so it was fun.” “I loved going to work.”

An 85-year-old Harvard University study found that positive relationships make people happier and help them live longer. For this reason, it is not surprising that Balto places a strong emphasis on the importance of family and friends.

Assistant Professor of Medicine and Genetics and Director of Human Lifespan Studies at the Albert Einstein Institute for Aging Research, Dr. Sophia Melman says. College of Medicine.

At 100, Balto maintains his sense of community by going out to dinner with his sons and attending family events. Finally attended a wedding earlier this month.

She also likes going to the Dunkin’ Donuts branch every Sunday with her son to meet friends. “I look forward to it every week,” he says.

Balto affirms that she is lucky; Because she has some friends of the same age who often come to her house for lunch.

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She added: “They always invite me over and come over for lunch on Wednesdays at 12pm… we have fun together… without your friends, where are you, right?”

While maintaining healthy relationships is an important factor in living longer, there are other factors that contributed to Balto’s longevity.

First, Mellman says, “In general, women’s life expectancy is longer than men’s…and we believe that genetics also has a significant relationship with longevity.”

In fact, Balto’s older sister lived to be 103 years old. “But she and I are the only ones who lived over 100 years,” she says, referring to her parents, who died at 84, and her sisters, who didn’t live very long.

I grew up on a vegetarian diet

Aiming to stay active, Balto says, “I’m still getting around better. I can walk up the stairs. I have energy; “so I’m in pretty good shape.”

She also tries to eat as healthy as possible, something that started in her childhood, she explains: “When I was a child, there were seven children in the family, and my father was building a big garden, so we lived mostly. On vegetables. “There wasn’t a lot of meat, we couldn’t afford meat.”

“I think that’s probably why I eat healthier,” she adds. Don’t eat fast food now.

Millman says centenarians are generally more confident, and Balto fits that description. He says it’s unclear whether centenarians are always positive, or whether they develop their positive outlook as they age.

Balto says she doesn’t feel too nervous; Because “everything can be solved.” She continues: “I’m very lucky; As I am 100 years old, I am in good health… I cannot complain about my health. “I’m walking, talking, no pain.”

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