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Will artificial intelligence systems replace doctors?



Will artificial intelligence systems replace doctors?

You may have seen celebrities touting the wonders of testosterone replacement therapy, saying that boosting testosterone levels makes men feel younger and stronger, and that it improves their sex lives.

This is all well and good, but testosterone replacement therapy

(TRD) Testosterone Replacement Therapy A Powerful Anti-Aging? Answer: As with all claims, don’t believe the hype.

“For some older men, raising low testosterone levels may improve some aspects of their physical and mental health, but testosterone replacement therapy does not turn back the clock,” says Brigham and Women’s Hospital urologist Dr. Michael O’Leary. with Harvard University. I came back suddenly.

Low testosterone levels

Testosterone is the sex hormone that gives men their masculine characteristics, this hormone is produced by the testicles and helps shape classic traits like voice depth, facial hair, muscle size and strength. It also boosts male libido.

Doctors define normal blood testosterone levels as 300 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL) or higher. According to the American College of Physicians, a man’s testosterone levels decline about 1.6 percent per year starting in his mid-30s. About 20 percent of men age 60 and older have low testosterone levels, rising to 30 percent of men in their 70s and 50 percent of men in their 80s.

In addition to normal age-related decline, significant drops in testosterone can also occur as a result of medications (especially anabolic steroids) or damage to the testicles, injury, infection, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.

Getting an accurate reading may require multiple blood tests, especially since testosterone levels fluctuate throughout the day. Tests are often taken between 7am and 10am when testosterone is at its peak. Low doses may cause any of the following symptoms and conditions:

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* Depression

Self-confidence will decrease

* Difficulty concentrating

* Sleep disturbances

* Decreased muscle and bone mass

* Increases body fat

* Fatigue

Swelling or sagging of the breast

* Feeling hot

* Sex drive will decrease

* Decreases the time of spontaneous erection

Difficulty maintaining an erection.

If your hormone levels are below 300 ng/dL, your doctor may recommend testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), Dr. O’Leary says. However, this doesn’t have to happen automatically; The first step is to determine if any symptoms attributed to low testosterone are related to something else that can be treated.

For example, symptoms such as feeling tired, difficulty concentrating and low sex drive can be caused by a poor diet, lack of exercise and insufficient sleep. Stress, anxiety, and depression can be side effects of erectile dysfunction. According to Dr. O’Leary, “raising low testosterone levels alone will not solve these problems.”

Testosterone replacement therapy

If troubling symptoms and low testosterone persist after investigating these possibilities, your doctor may recommend short-term testosterone replacement therapy. Treatment is usually given as a daily ointment or cream or a patch on the skin (usually on the shoulder or thigh, in easily accessible places). Testosterone therapy can be taken orally daily or injected weekly or fortnightly. Another option is pellets implanted in the buttocks, which slowly release testosterone over a period of a week. “One use has no advantage over the other, but injections may have a faster effect,” Dr O’Leary added.

After you’ve been on testosterone therapy for about two months, your doctor will evaluate your symptoms. If there is no significant improvement, the dose can be increased, the current dose can be continued for a while, or stopped.

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In this regard, Dr. O’Leary advises, “Keep in mind that testosterone therapy may not work for everyone or may have minimal effect.”

Another aspect to consider is that if you have a good response, you may need to maintain testosterone therapy indefinitely to maintain the benefit. This is because your body stops producing its own testosterone while you are on treatment.

Testosterone therapy can cause short-term side effects such as acne, shortness of breath during sleep, swollen or droopy breasts, or swollen ankles. “However, for the majority of eligible men, the benefits of testosterone replacement therapy usually outweigh these potential risks,” says Dr. O’Leary.

However, there are concerns about long-term use of testosterone replacement therapy, and scientists are investigating whether it stimulates the growth of prostate cancer cells. Some research has indicated that it may increase the risk of heart attack, stroke and death from heart disease.

A more nuanced answer in this area may come from the recently completed TRAVERSE trial, which looked at the link between testosterone therapy and serious cardiovascular problems in more than 5,000 men over five years.

Results will be declared soon. For now, the evidence regarding these potential risks is still mixed. Therefore; The safest option is to avoid testosterone replacement therapy for men at risk of heart disease or men diagnosed with prostate cancer.

* Harvard Letter “Monitoring Men’s Health” – Services “Tribune Media”.

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Finding the genetic causes of a rare cancer affecting the kidney



Finding the genetic causes of a rare cancer affecting the kidney

An international team led by researchers at the British Wellcome Sanger Institute has revealed a new drug target that could act as an alternative treatment for kidney cancer if doctors don’t recommend surgery. According to the results of a study published in the journal Nature Communications (Monday), this rare cancerous form of kidney tumor is called Renin tumor, and its complete genetic code has been understood for the first time.

Reninoma is one of the rarest cancers in humans, with only about 100 cases reported worldwide. Although it can usually be treated with surgery, it can cause severe high blood pressure and develop into malignant tumors that can spread.

There are still no medical treatments for kidney tumors, as treatment management only involves surgery. Before the results of the latest study came out, it was not known what genetic error caused these types of tumors.

Reninoma is one of the rarest cancerous tumors in humans (Public Domain).

According to the study’s co-principal investigator, Dr. Sam Bagadi, Wellcome Senior Research Fellow at the Wellcome Sanger Institute: “The significance of our results is that we have succeeded in discovering the essence of this type of tumor. Based on the fact that it is so rare, there have been no previous studies on it.

He added to Asharq Al-Awsat: “Not only have we been able to understand the genetic code of a kidney tumor, but we have also shown that drugs can counteract what triggers it, and this may be important for patients whose tumors cannot be removed. through surgery.”

Researchers have identified a specific error in the genetic code of a known cancer gene called NOTCH1, which is behind the development of this rare cancer.

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“This is the first time we have identified the causes of kidney tumors, and we believe our work will continue to pave the way for new treatments,” said lead study author Taryn Trescher at the Wellcome Sanger Institute.

The team has already studied two cancer samples, one from a young adult and the other from a child, using advanced genetic techniques. Their findings suggest that existing drugs that actually target this gene could be used as a potential solution for treating kidney tumors in patients for whom surgery is not a viable option.

Dr Tansina Chowdhury, lead researcher on the study at Great Ormond Street Hospital in the UK, explained: “Rare forms of kidney cancer known as renal tumors do not respond to traditional anti-cancer treatments. “Currently the only known treatment is surgery.” She added: “There is a specific, well-known gene that drives this rare cancer. Our study shows that the studied gene has “If we use drugs that are already known to affect this gene, we can deal with it without the need for invasive medical technology like surgery.”

Here Bahjati said: “Rare cancers are a huge challenge for research and analysis. Patients with other types of tumors may not benefit from them. “But here is a powerful example of cutting-edge science that is changing our understanding of an extremely rare type of tumor: a discovery that could have immediate clinical benefits for patients.” He added: “We will continue to study these extremely rare tumors to understand their genetic code, which we hope will reveal more new therapeutic approaches.”

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Climate change: Saudi Arabia warns against rush to abandon traditional fuels – Financial Times



Climate change: Saudi Arabia warns against rush to abandon traditional fuels – Financial Times

image source, Good pictures

We begin our tour of British newspapers with Amy Williams in New York and Miles McCormick in Calgary at the Financial Times on what they describe as deep tensions and divisions over the oil and gas industry’s role in combating climate change. Recent events in New York, US and Calgary, Canada this week cast doubt on the likelihood of an agreement at the upcoming United Nations COP28 conference.

According to the article, when world leaders and senior officials meet in New York in ten weeks ahead of the United Nations’ COP28 climate summit, there is a deep divide between those who support and those who urge the expansion of fossil fuel use. Stopping all forms of growth and expansion is critical to achieving stability in the world.

In December, the UN The authors quoted Dan Jorgensen, Denmark’s minister for development cooperation and global climate policy, who is leading discussions on new climate targets that could be agreed at the climate change conference COP28, as saying: “Countries agree that we must move. Move forward on this issue.” “But the bad news is that we’re far from reaching an agreement. We need to address the larger problem of burning fossil fuels.”

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What are the most common symptoms of breast cancer in men?



What are the most common symptoms of breast cancer in men?

Breast cancer is a disease that affects women, especially with a high number of infections, but in fact it affects men as well, and many believe that it leads to death among them.

she explained NHS The NHS in England says that 85 men die each year in Britain from breast cancer, and that the malignancy affects around 400 men annually.

The charity Breast Cancer Now also reports that “at least one person is diagnosed with the disease every day”.

According to the website “Mayo ClinicMedically, male breast cancer is “a rare cancer that begins with the growth of cells in the breast tissue of men.”

Breast cancer cells disrupt the immune system

Australian researchers announced Monday that breast cancer cells have powerfully destroyed the body’s immune system, allowing the disease to invade patients’ bones.

“Breast cancer in men usually affects older people, but it can occur at any age,” he pointed out.

Those diagnosed with “male breast cancer” at an early stage have a good chance of recovery.

What are the symptoms?

The symptoms of this disease are as follows:

A painless lump or thickening of breast tissue and changes in the skin of the breast, such as sagging, wrinkling, redness or peeling.
Changes in the nipples, such as redness or peeling, or one of the nipples turning inward.

The causes of these malignant tumors are still unclear, but doctors define “male breast cancer” as occurring when “some breast cells divide faster than healthy cells.”

Accumulated cells form a tumor, which can spread (metastasize) to nearby tissues, lymph nodes, or other parts of the body.

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According to the website “Web MedicineThe disease can be diagnosed through a clinical examination, which is done by feeling the chest area of ​​the person in search of any tumors or changes in the chest tissue, and the doctor evaluates the size, structure and depth of the tumors present.

It can be diagnosed with radiographic imaging such as X-rays or ultrasound to create clear images of the breast tissue.

Only a biopsy is used to “confirm” a diagnosis of breast cancer in men. This is done by taking a sample of the tumor tissue and examining it to confirm whether the tumor is cancerous or benign.

Treatment usually involves surgery to remove as much of the visible tumor as possible, along with some of the surrounding healthy tissue.

Other treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be recommended depending on the condition.

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