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A ground test paves the way for lunar infrastructure.. The secret is lasers and dust | Science



A ground test paves the way for lunar infrastructure.. The secret is lasers and dust |  Science

385 years ago, the idea of ​​establishing a colony on the moon was born, in 1638 the English priest, philosopher and encyclopedist John Wilkins wrote a letter about a new world and another planet, in which he predicted a human colony. in the moon.

The world is now inching closer to this dream after the US space agency set 2028 as the date to achieve it, but there are serious challenges that threaten the project, chief among them lunar dust, which is spoiled. Previous space missions, and it’s a problem posed by a research team. A German researcher found a possible solution to this problem in a study published Oct. 12 in the journal Scientific Reports, showing the possibility of using a laser to melt lunar dust. To construct paved roads and landing areas.

In a special report to Al Jazeera Net, Miranda Fateri, from the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at Allen University in Germany, said: “The surface of the moon is fine, electrically charged, abrasive, and magnetically dusty, and it can stick to space suits, rovers and equipment, which presents potential challenges and risks. presents.” “

He added, “Our idea is to use dust to create paved roads, which contributes to reducing the problems associated with it, by providing a smooth and controlled surface for movement, which ultimately leads to protecting the lunar infrastructure and extending the life of the equipment.”

Description of Paved Road and Lunar Landing Site (Liquefier Systems Group)

How did the researchers prove their point?

Lacking lunar dust that the researchers could use to prove their idea, the researchers tested microscopic material called EAC-1A, a lunar soil substitute developed by the European Space Agency, and used a 50 mm laser beam. By heating and melting the dust to about 1,600 degrees Celsius, they created curved triangular shapes, each about 25 cm wide, that interlocked to form solid surfaces over large areas of lunar soil that would serve as roads and future landing pads.

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As the researchers explained in their study, this process is not easy, as each small engineering unit takes an hour to produce, which means it takes about 100 days to build a 10 x 10 meter landing pad.

To overcome the problem of the cost of transporting construction materials from Earth to the Moon, researchers were interested in how to reproduce this approach on the Moon using available resources, such as the Sun instead of laser beams.

The researchers decided that a lens with an area of ​​about 2.37 square meters would have to be moved from the ground to act as a concentrator of sunlight instead of a laser, and that the lens could be rolled and made of polymer chips. Easy to carry.

Since dust can still be a problem when lenses accumulate, the researchers suggested that using a vibrating lens could help alleviate this problem.

Next stage of study

While it is easy for researchers to imagine problems and propose solutions to them, providing solutions on the ground is a difficult problem, and requires specialized equipment.

“The experiment was conducted in the Earth’s gravity environment,” study co-researcher Juan Carlos Genis Palomares of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at Allen University in Germany told Al Jazeera Net exclusively. If we want to bring these technologies to the Moon one day, the devices will need to be tested under conditions.” “The Moon (specifically, the absence of lunar wind and gravity), is what we will do in our next study.”

He added, “We will address manufacturing in low-gravity conditions like the Moon by taking zero-gravity travel, which will be available to anyone who wants to experience the feelings of weightlessness experienced by astronauts.”

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The success of these experiments was not only in using lunar dust to pave roads on the surface of the moon, but as Palomares confirms, it can be used in more than one direction.

He says, “Moon dust can be turned into a small solid material suitable for construction in a number of ways. It can be made into bricks, it can be melted quickly to form glass, and it can also be used to make lunar cement. As researchers have done in other studies.”

A research team from the Chinese University’s Guangxi Laboratory for Petrochemical Resources Processing has succeeded in producing cement in a test environment that mimics lunar conditions, using volcanic ash similar to lunar dust. Gondwana Research in April 2017.

In the most recent experiment, a research team from the Indian Institute of Science succeeded in demonstrating the feasibility of using lunar dust to make artificial space bricks, and the results were published on the pre-research site ArXiv in August this year.

This unusual photograph, taken during the second Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA), shows two American spacecraft on the lunar surface.  The Apollo 12 Lunar Module (LM) is in the background.  The unmanned Surveyor 3 spacecraft is in the foreground.  Credit: NASA
Lunar dust marred the mission of the American spacecraft “Surveyor 3” launched in April 1967 (NASA).

Many benefits

Regarding the economic and scientific value of building paved roads and landing pads on the Moon as part of developing lunar infrastructure for future human missions, Miranda Vatheri says, “The Moon is an ideal place to conduct scientific research and expand our understanding of the universe. , and installing telescopes and scientific instruments on its surface will provide unique and unobstructed views.” can provide.” “The constraints of space, devoid of Earth’s atmosphere, make it an attractive place for astronomical research.”

He continued, “The Moon could serve as an important stopover for missions to Mars and beyond, and could serve as a refueling station or launch point for further deep space exploration.”

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He adds, “In order to enable a sustainable human presence on the Moon, infrastructure is essential to perform these tasks, as lunar sites or habitats require reliable transportation routes and landing sites to facilitate the movement of equipment, vehicles and materials. Lunar operations are highly efficient and sustainable.”

Economic income

In addition to these research reports, there are economic returns indicated by Palomares, which, “in recent times, space tourism has become the interest of more companies, so it is necessary to secure reliable transportation methods and landing sites. To implement this, there is a need to use the available “by the moon, loose dust”.

He says, “By implementing this, another benefit is achieved, which is to reduce the loss of space missions, as the US space shuttle mission (Surveyor 3), launched in April 1967, was damaged by lunar dust. Therefore, “overcoming this challenge is a priority for NASA, which will establish a permanent outpost on the Moon. aims to establish.”

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A precise analysis sequence of the universe’s 13.7 billion years… from “explosion” to “cold death”.



A precise analysis sequence of the universe’s 13.7 billion years… from “explosion” to “cold death”.

Box News – Latest – Today we talk about the exact analysis sequence of 13.7 billion years of the universe … from “explosion” to “cold death” sparking a lot of interest and controversy on social networking sites. Discuss in detail the precise analytical sequence of 13.7 billion years. From the Age of the Universe … From “Explosion” to “Cold Death” This article is part of a series of articles usually published by Box News.

A special science magazine, Interesting Engineering, presents a complete and concise view of the history of the universe from its beginning to the present era. Visions can vary and be criticized based on the discoveries that occur daily in the field of space science.

The beginning of the explosion

Scientists believed that the universe began at this time, 13.7 billion years ago, and there was a big bang. Various space missions have produced estimates related to the age of the universe, since the Planck mission, especially in the period from 2009 to 2013, according to data from the European Space Agency. The age of the universe was estimated at 13.82 billion years, but a recent estimate from observations by the Atacama Telescope in Chile puts it at 13.77 billion years old.

The second phase of the universe’s life is the creation of atoms, scientific theories suggest that subatomic particles including (electrons and neutrons) formed 6 to 10 seconds after the Big Bang, amid scientists’ beliefs that the universe began to cool (protons and neutrons).

For 380 million years, nothing disturbing or significant happened, while some elements combined to form helium atoms.

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In the third phase, as atoms begin to form, energy is released in the form of light, known as the “cosmic microwave background.” This led to the absorption of free electrons to make the universe dark. , and so there is no scattering of light.

Dark times

About 400 million years after the Big Bang, the so-called “Dark Ages” appeared, the “Age of Reionization,” a period in which the universe went through a dynamic phase that is believed to have lasted for a billion years. In life, observations showed that reionization could have occurred quickly and suddenly. Scientists knew that during that period, gas first formed stars and galaxies.

The fourth stage is that the first star is called Methuselah or HD 140283, and it is considered the oldest in the universe, because it is located about 190.1 light years from Earth and is in equilibrium, and its age is about 13 billion years, which is close to the age of the universe.

The story of the birth of the first two constellations

During the fifth phase, the first two galaxies were born, and in July 2021, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) captured an image of a galaxy called GLASS-z13, which formed about 300 to 400 million years after the Big Bang.

The James Webb Space Telescope found another early galaxy called GLASS-z11, and the research confirmed that, based on the mass of a billion suns, the two galaxies must be about 500 million years old.

milky way

As for the story of the Milky Way, it is believed that the Milky Way Galaxy formed when large clouds of gas and dust gathered under the force of gravity. When a dense, bright disk appears.

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Recent research indicates that these theories are more complex and not simple, including multiple collisions and mergers with smaller galaxies, data from the Gaia space observatory revealed some of the oldest stars expected to be found in the galaxy. The halo is, in fact, present in the disk, indicating that the history of stellar motion and galaxy formation is very complex.

According to the results, the Milky Way Galaxy is not static, having evolved over billions of years except by gravitational interactions and mergers with other star systems.

According to some astronomers, the Milky Way Galaxy and the “neighboring” Andromeda Galaxy are scheduled to collide after about 5 billion years.

The result is cold death

Cold Death Comes in the Final Scene According to scientific evidence, the Big Freeze or Heat Death is a clear scenario of the end of the universe as the universe expands indefinitely and eventually reaches absolute zero temperature.

Evaporating black holes, known as “Hawking radiation,” stop star formation and burn out existing stars.

In one of the theories on the subject, he confirmed the “Big Crunch”, a theory that believes that the universe collapsed into a hot and dense state and caused a big bang, although this theory is interesting, should not be imagined. What happens when humans run out of time?

At the end of our article, if you have any suggestions or comments about the news, don’t hesitate to write us. We appreciate your feedback and strive to improve the site to meet your needs and meet your aspirations. Thank you for visiting us, we wish you a pleasant and productive time with us.

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It is expected to announce Windows 12 in the second half of 2024



It is expected to announce Windows 12 in the second half of 2024

This topic was written by Sultan Al-Qahtani – Software giant Microsoft is preparing to launch a new version of the Windows operating system, and recent expectations indicate that Microsoft is preparing to release the Windows 12 update in the second half of 2024. .

Microsoft is working on a new version of the Windows operating system, known by the “Hudson Valley” logo, and leaks from multiple sources have confirmed that the Windows 12 update aims to focus specifically on artificial intelligence technology.

The company has already started previewing the “Hudson Valley” update, which will later be released under the title Windows 12, via “Windows Insider” in preparation for the release of the RTM model in April 2024.

This version mainly focuses on improving the user experience with artificial intelligence technology, with features like “Windows Shell” and assistant with artificial intelligence technology, a digital assistant that works continuously on the back screen.

The digital assistant is expected to support improving search functions and launching applications, and artificial intelligence will also work to improve system management with smoother performance when integrated deep into the operating system through new NPU devices to achieve optimal performance.

Expectations also indicate that new standards will be required for computers to be compatible with new artificial intelligence technology, and the proportion of devices equipped with artificial intelligence technology is expected to rise to 81% by 2027.


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Bieber Brings “iMessage” to Android Devices Due to Apple’s Privacy Infringement



Bieber Brings “iMessage” to Android Devices Due to Apple’s Privacy Infringement

Sunday 10 December 2023 / 13:04

Weeks after the failure of the NothingChats and Sunbird apps, the app Paper Mini announced the possibility of using iMessage for Android devices due to concerns about the privacy of users of Messages, an instant messaging service only available on Apple devices., a website specializing in technology topics, notes that the Pepper Mini application is a successor to the original Pepper application, now named Pepper Cloud.

Like the original Sunbird or Paper applications, the Paper Mini application connects directly to the iMessage network without requiring a permanent connection to Apple Mac Mini devices. Therefore, the Pepper Mini does not require an Apple ID, although having this ID will allow the user to access the iMessage service via the Pepper Mini and Apple devices such as Macs and iPads.
Pepper says it supports several key features of iMessage using methods such as end-to-end message encryption, typing indicators, replying to posts and group chats.

Pepper was developed independently of Apple, and it is impossible to continue to offer all the features that Apple offers to iMessage users on iPhone smartphones and other devices manufactured by the American company.
Meanwhile, the original Pepper app has a waiting list of users who want to access it.

Original Pepper allows you to access the iMessage service using any Mac device while connected to another messaging app, such as WhatsApp.

Pepper Mini can be downloaded from Google’s Play Store without waiting, but the developer gets a $2 monthly subscription after a 7-day free trial period.

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