In a new step toward supporting life on the Moon and Mars, researchers in sustainable technology are harnessing solar energy in space to make it useful for multiple purposes, especially on long missions like going to Mars. Amid the difficulties associated with sending fuel and oxygen from Earth, it typically takes two years.
In this direction, researchers at the University of Warwick in England have developed a new technology that can generate renewable green energy by absorbing sunlight from outside the Earth’s atmosphere on the Moon and Mars.
The new technology is a combination of different synthetic photosynthesis mechanisms and is expected to enable astronauts to breathe on the surface of Mars and help scientists recycle carbon dioxide and conserve sustainable energy. In space exploration.
According to the site ConversationThe process of photosynthesis is one of the beginnings of life forms on the planet, since it is more than 2.3 billion years old, and it allows plants to collect sunlight, water and carbon dioxide and convert them into oxygen and energy. sugars.
As for artificial photosynthesis, it is a process that mimics the natural photosynthesis process, in which energy from sunlight is captured and stored in the chemical bonds of solar fuel, and photosynthesis splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. Artificial photosynthesis works. Reduces carbon dioxide produced by light.
Development of artificial photosynthetic devices
According to a study published in the journal Natural communicationRecent advances in artificial photosynthesis devices could be key to survival and prosperity from Earth, such as what University of Warwick scientists have done on the Moon and Mars to develop technology that relies on semiconductors to absorb sunlight.
Just Press release The technology presented by the University of Warwick is to create artificial photosynthesis devices, because it is assembled in a device that is heavy in weight but high in efficiency, works at room temperature, and every day it undergoes chemical treatment to generate energy. , to help the aerospace industry become more sustainable. .
In addition, the proposed device uses semiconductor materials coated with metal catalysts that convert chlorophyll to support the chemical reaction required for light absorption, and the technology undergoes the same processes that keep plants alive on Earth, converting water into oxygen using only sunlight during recycling. The second is carbon dioxide.
These integrated systems of artificial photosynthesis have the advantage of directly harnessing solar energy and can save weight on long-duration space flights compared to traditional systems currently used on the International Space Station, making space travel more efficient.
Space requires energy
As the University of Warwick reports, there is an urgent need for efficient and reliable energy sources in space to explore our solar system, and that is expected. This technology has been installed to harvest green energy to help power rockets to the Moon and Mars, produce oxygen and other chemicals, recycle carbon dioxide and provide life support systems.
Insights gained from this study regarding improved device performance can feed into their optimization for applications on Earth and provide insights into the performance of conventional solar cells in space, the report added.
Katharina Brinkert, assistant professor of chemistry at the University of Warwick, said in her statement included in the report, “Human space exploration faces the same challenges as deploying green energy on Earth, as both require sustainable energy sources. With abundant sunlight in space, we have shown how it can be harnessed, this energy collection Sourced — like plants on Earth — for life support systems for long-duration space travel, this technology could provide abundant oxygen production and recycling of carbon dioxide on both the Moon and Mars.
Some people like to eat a lot of spicy food and may not be able to resist it, although this may cause some problems with the taste buds of the tongue or the digestive system, and according to the website “My Health only“, can cause Chili pepper For various digestive problems like vomiting, indigestion, irritable bowel syndrome and constipation, there are ways to improve spice tolerance..
Cool ingredients from your diet to soothe chili problems
Eating cooling foods like yogurt, cucumber, mint and coconut are great ways to combat the heat of burning foods as they soothe the digestive system.
Spicy foods can cause dehydration, so be sure to stay hydrated, especially when eating spicy foods, drinking water and herbs to help balance and maintain balance.
Yogurt with hot dishes
Drinking curd after eating spicy food can help in relieving the heat caused by spicy food. Curd is a classic remedy, it contains probiotics and has a soothing effect on the digestive system.
Herbs like chamomile
Herbs like cilantro can help cut down on spicy flavors. Additionally, drinking herbal teas like chamomile or peppermint after meals can also help ease digestion after a spicy meal.
The painful earthquakes in Turkey, Morocco and Afghanistan in 2023, which caused severe losses beyond thousands of deaths and injuries and severe damage to infrastructure, confirm the importance of constructing earthquake-resistant buildings. Many technological solutions are now available to increase the resistance of buildings to earthquakes, which may protect lives or mitigate their psychological and economic effects and consequences. Many international universities are also racing to develop technologies that can help predict earthquakes using artificial intelligence.
Earthquake resistant designs
Earthquake-resistant design includes a range of technologies and methods to improve a building’s ability to withstand seismic forces. In an exclusive interview with Asharq Al-Awsat, architect Muhammad Obaid, founder and CEO of Emcon Architecture and Engineering Consultancy, explains the basic techniques and methods currently used in earthquake-resistant design. “Basic isolation systems range from shear walls, moment-resisting frames, anchorage systems, tuned mass dampers, viscous dampers, reinforced concrete, steel framing, flexible materials, energy dissipation devices, seismic retrofitting, design of non-structural components,” Obaid said. says. , and soil optimization, seismic hazard assessment, computer modeling and simulation, and building codes and standards.” He adds, “Engineers and architects combine these techniques and methods to create detailed earthquake-resistant designs designed to meet the specific needs and conditions of the building and its location, and the choice of techniques depends on factors such as the type of building, location, budget, and level of seismic risk.” “
Restoration of old buildings
Retrofitting existing buildings with sustainable, earthquake-resistant technologies is certainly possible, but it requires careful planning, engineering expertise and compliance with local regulations. Architect Muhammad Obaid, speaking to Asharq Al-Awsat, believes that “existing buildings can be modernized with sustainable and earthquake-resistant technologies, although the process varies in complexity depending on the specific technologies and the structural and architectural characteristics of the building.” Some of the considerations for retrofitting existing buildings with these techniques include “structural retrofitting, material improvements, architectural considerations, engineering expertise, building codes and permits, cost considerations, phased approach, seismic evaluation and integration of sustainable technologies,” he explains. “Operational challenges and issues vary from one building to another, and a customized approach is often necessary to achieve desired seismic and sustainability goals while minimizing disruption to building occupants,” he notes.
Stanford University researchers have developed an artificial intelligence model that can predict aftershocks after an earthquake with more than 80 percent accuracy.
The model was trained on a dataset of more than 700,000 earthquakes from around the world, and it was able to identify patterns in more complex data that traditional methods could not detect, the researchers report.
The model works by analyzing seismic activity data sources, geological data and machine learning algorithms to identify patterns and trends associated with the occurrence of earthquakes. It can predict the size and timing of a setback. The model is still under development, but it can be a valuable predictive tool that can improve the accuracy and timeliness of aftershock warnings and help save lives and property.
High precision Japanese model
Scientists at the University of Tokyo have succeeded in developing a model called Deep Learning Earthquake Prediction Model (DLEPM) that can predict with high accuracy by analyzing seismic activity patterns. The model was trained on a dataset of over 10 million seismic events from around the world. DLEPM analyzes a variety of data sources, including geographic data and machine learning algorithms. Japanese university researchers say it has proven to be very accurate in predicting. It is 80 percent successful in predicting magnitude 6 or greater earthquakes within a week of their occurrence.
“DLEPM” is still under development, but its potential is not limited to saving lives and property, but improving researchers’ understanding of earthquake processes and how and why they occur to develop new strategies to prevent them and mitigate their effects.
Another AI model that can predict future fault friction is called the Deep Learning Fault Friction Model (DLFFM), developed by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the US.
Trained on a dataset of more than one million laboratory earthquakes, the model analyzes various data sources to identify patterns and trends associated with fault friction. They can be used to predict future friction at a given location, and how friction will change over time. DLFFM is still under development, but could be a valuable tool for improving the accuracy and timeliness of earthquake warnings.
The innovative Japanese method
Japan is located on the Pacific “Ring of Fire” and is known for frequent seismic activity, prompting the design and construction of earthquake-resistant buildings.
An architectural firm affiliated with Kengo Kuma used carbon fiber to stabilize buildings and protect them from earthquakes. These materials are made from thermoplastic carbon fiber, a material with amazing tensile strength that rivals traditional building materials like steel. The innovation provides additional reinforcement to the building structure as carbon fiber ropes extend through a metal frame above the eco-friendly roof and then drop down the sides to reach the ground. Carbon fibres, separated in curtain-like fashion, form doors that lead to interior spaces draped over time and covered in white fabric.
Cost of earthquake resistant buildings
Earthquake-resistant technologies can have a significant impact on the overall cost of a construction project. While these technologies are essential to ensure a building’s safety and resilience during seismic events, they can also add cost to a project. Architect Muhammad Obaid, founder and CEO of Imcon Architecture and Engineering Consulting, explains in an exclusive interview with Asharq Al-Awsad, “The degree of this influence depends on various factors, including specific technologies, the location of the project, the type of building and the level of seismic hazards. “Earthquake He believes that resisting technologies, materials and components, complexity of structural design, special systems, foundation systems, quality control and inspection, architectural modifications, seismic retrofits, local building codes, and degree of seismic risk affect construction costs. Project size and complexity and maintenance and life cycle costs.
While earthquake-resistant technologies add upfront construction costs, they also lead to long-term benefits. Architect Muhammad Obaid says, “These benefits include increased safety, lower repair and reconstruction costs after an earthquake, and a possible reduction in insurance premiums. Some regions offer incentives or subsidies to cover the initial costs of incorporating earthquake-resistant technologies.” Generally, building an earthquake-resistant building costs more than a conventional building. According to architect Muhammad Obaid, this cost is “10 percent to 30 percent more than the cost of building a conventional building.”
Some metabolic disorders can cause bad breath due to various problems in the intestines, blood or liver.
The following are the most important medical conditions that can cause complications:
A common condition that causes bad breath in the mouth and throat is diabetes because high glucose levels can cause the growth of harmful bacteria.
Because people with diabetes have insulin problems, cells may not get the glucose they need for energy, and instead the body starts burning fat-forming compounds called ketones.
Ketones accumulate in the blood and urine and cause bad breath.
One of these ketones is acetone, and it can cause breath to smell like nail polish.
If someone with diabetes notices the smell, they should seek medical advice as it could be due to diabetic ketoacidosis, a life-threatening condition.
If a person’s breath has a strong, foul smell, this is a sign that the liver is not filtering out toxins.
Doctors call this distinctive smell “the breath of the dead” because of its association with severe and fatal liver disease.
Chronic kidney disease is a condition in which the kidneys are damaged and cannot filter the blood properly, which is why excess fluids and waste from the blood can build up in the body and cause other health problems such as heart disease and stroke.
People with kidney failure may develop bad breath.
As the kidneys begin to fail, the metabolic urea cannot be excreted effectively in the urine, and it accumulates in the blood and saliva.
The body converts urea into ammonia, which causes bitterness in the mouth and bad breath.
One in three people on dialysis say their breath smells like urine.