Scientists have discovered that the interior of Jupiter contains the remains of smaller planets that were swallowed up by a gas giant as they expanded to where they are today.
The results come from the first visible scene under the cloudy outer atmosphere of the planet.
Despite being the largest planet in the solar system, Jupiter has revealed very little about its inner structure. Telescopes have taken thousands of images of rotating clouds in the atmosphere above the gas giant, but these vortex storms, like Van Gogh’s paintings, act as a barrier to our view of what lies below.
In a new study, scientists were finally able to view Jupiter’s gas overview using gravity data collected from NASA’s Juno space probe.
This data helped the team map the rock objects at the center of the giant planet, which revealed a surprisingly large number of heavier elements, suggesting that Jupiter swallows smaller planets or mini-planets (solid bodies inhabiting orbiting planetary disks). And in trash cans), to grow to its current size.
Jupiter began life with the force of gravity, which pulls rocks and gases from a great distance. It was mostly hydrogen and helium left over from the Sun’s birth, which created the largest gas-filled atmosphere.
The results of the study support the proposed theory that the center of Jupiter formed by the absorption of many small planets and large space rocks many miles long.
If left unchecked, these space rocks could evolve into rocky planets such as Earth or Mars.
“Since we can not directly observe how Jupiter formed, we need to combine the pieces with the information we have today,” Yamila Miguel, lead author of the study, told LiveScience.
“Here on Earth, we use seismic maps to study the interior of the planet using earthquakes,” Miguel explained.
But since Jupiter does not have the surface to place such devices, scientists have created computer models of Jupiter’s interior by integrating data collected by sensors in vehicles such as Juno and Galileo.
Sensors measure the planet’s gravitational field at various points around its orbit. This data helped the team to find subtle differences in the planet’s gravitational pull, which helped to locate the rock inside the planet.
“The Juno spacecraft provided very accurate gravity data, which helped control the distribution of objects inside Jupiter,” Miguel said.
Research shows that Jupiter contains 11 to 30 Earth-heavy elements (3% to 9% of Jupiter’s mass), which is higher than expected.
Jupiter only swallows smaller planets, Miguel said, showing higher concentrations of heavier elements.
New discoveries could change theories about the origin of other planets in the solar system, such as Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
The entire Samsung Galaxy Ultra series of phones is slated to be unveiled during the event on October 26, 2023. All the specifications and features of these phones will be mentioned during the event, giving the public a comprehensive overview. The performance, technology and power of these new devices, information about the upcoming Samsung S24 Ultra phone… in the near future.
Samsung S24 Ultra in Saudi Arabia
Permanent employment contract in Emirates and job vacancies with excellent salary for all nationalities from international company Visa
With Salary above 27,000 dirhams.. International company Siemens and most powerful jobs in Emirates for all nationalities Apply Now (Application Link)
Markets are eagerly anticipating the launch of Samsung’s new phone, which is expected to hit stores during the New Year, based on the results of global competitor Samsung. State of the Smart Phone Market in 2024 At the beginning of every year, companies work to release new versions of their phones to keep up with the developments in the market and meet the needs of the consumers.
The entire Samsung Galaxy Ultra series of phones is slated to be unveiled during the event on October 26, 2023. During this conference, all the expected specifications for these phones will be announced and more information is expected to be leaked. Samsung S24 Ultra Phone features and capabilities are expected in future.
As for the Galaxy S24 phone, Samsung is expected to launch it in early 2024, and the company is aiming to launch its S24 Ultra phone before the MWC 2024 event, as several competing phones will be announced at the event.
read more: Replace your old phone with the new iPhone 14 Pro Max from Noon Saudi Arabia at the best offer and price
Lifetime Jobs in Amman from Biggest Companies Paying More Than 10,000 Riyals.. Conditions and Application Link
Best jobs in Qatar offered by Parsons International for men and women of all nationalities with high salaries
Samsung Galaxy S24 Ultra Phone Specifications
Samsung Galaxy S24 series has amazing features. These phones have a large, high-quality Super AMOLED display with a resolution of up to 4K, which provides a wonderful viewing experience. Also, the Galaxy S24 has a powerful processor and a large RAM of up to 12 GB, which allows applications and games. Runs smoothly and efficiently. These phones use the experience for premium users:
As far as the technical specifications are concerned, the weight of the phone is around 233 grams. It also supports adding two nano SIM cards.
The phone comes with a Qualcomm Snapdragon 8 Gen 3 octa-core processor and a 12-megapixel front-facing camera.
Grand Hyper Amman Travel Offers till October 10, 2023
12 thousand Saudi Riyals, great cars, easy to use and small traffic
Additionally, the phone has four rear cameras, including a 200-megapixel primary camera with optical stabilization and a 10-megapixel secondary camera with 10X true zoom and up to 100X digital zoom. An additional microphone can also be added for noise isolation.
In terms of battery capacity, the Galaxy S24 Ultra and Galaxy S24 Plus series are expected to support a 5,000 mAh battery, and the Ultra version also has an additional cooling option.
Featuring features like stacked battery technology and fast charging, the S24 Ultra is expected to support 65W charging, an upgrade over previous versions that supported 45W fast charging technology.
The phone comes with 4K video recording and IP68 certification along with other features like water and dust resistance.
Get the new iPhone 14 Pro in interest-free installments at a great price, 700 riyals off from noon in Saudi Arabia
How to inquire about travel restrictions for residents of Qatar
It also features a stylish design that includes a front and glass back protected by Corning Gorilla Glass technology.
The Ultra version of the Galaxy S24 is available with up to 1TB of storage and 12GB of RAM.
In short, the Samsung Galaxy S24 series offers a great user experience thanks to its wide range of features that include its high-quality screen, powerful processor, advanced camera, large battery and sleek and durable design.
read more: New iPhone 15 and iPhone 15 Plus Price and Specifications
Al Othaim’s latest offers are unmatched discounts of up to 75% for 3 days only
Lifetime jobs in Saudi Arabia, BAE Systems, one of the leaders, with rewarding salary and easy conditions
How much does the Samsung S23 Ultra cost?
Samsung Galaxy S23 price in Saudi Arabia is around 4,500 riyals.
When is the S24 Ultra coming out?
The Samsung Galaxy Ultra series will be announced on October 26, 2023.
Is the Samsung S23 Ultra waterproof?
The new Samsung Galaxy S23, Galaxy S23+ and Galaxy S23 Ultra series with S Pen The Galaxy S23 Ultra model has IP68 water and dust resistance standards according to immersion tests in pure water up to 1.5 meters for about 30 minutes. , providing ultimate protection for these devices.
Saco offers up to 50% off appliances and home goods
Job Vacancies in Emirates for Citizens and Residents at Emarat Petroleum Company with attractive and unprecedented salaries and incentives. Click here to apply
With a premium of 400 riyals, the price of used cars in Saudi Arabia is 11 thousand riyals.
46% Extra Key Discounts, Special Offers on Coolers During Summer End
Saudi Aramco No Experience Job Vacancies, Excellent Salary and Benefits… Conditions and Application Link
Marriott International Hotels offers attractive jobs in Qatar to men and women of all nationalities on favorable terms
Nesto Hypermarket UAE offers amazing offers till 15th October 2023
Crazy 18% discounts on new iPhone 14 Pro Max, cash or installments in Saudi Arabia during new iPhone launch
Motorola’s Moto G54 phone is characterized by striking a great balance between price and performance. It’s a mid-range phone, but it comes with powerful features, especially the screen that comes with a refresh rate of up to 120 Hz, and has a higher resolution compared to the previous model. It also has a large battery. It has a capacity of 5,000 mAh and supports higher charging speed compared to the previous model Moto G53.
Here is the review of Moto G54 phone by Motorola to know all the specifications and features of this phone:
The Moto G54 phone comes with a body made of plastic – the back and frame are made of plastic – with a matte back with a smooth texture that is somewhat resistant to fingerprints, and the Motorola logo appears in the middle of the back.
Topics related to what you are reading now:
The smartphone is lightweight and 10 grams lighter than the previous model, weighing only 177 grams.
As for the colors, the Motorola phone comes in four colors: Midnight Blue, Indigo Blue, Mint Green and Glacier Blue.
The Moto G54 phone sports a 6.5-inch IPS LCD screen with a resolution of 2400 x 1080 pixels, a density of 405 pixels per inch and supports a refresh rate of up to 120 Hz.
The Moto G54 offers three refresh rate modes: Auto, 120Hz and 60Hz, and you can adjust these modes manually from Settings.
Performance, battery and charging:
The Moto G54 phone is powered by an octa-core MediaTek Dimensity 7020 processor, manufactured with 6nm technology, with a maximum frequency of 2.2 GHz and an IMG BXM-8-256 graphics processing unit. The phone is available in 8GB of RAM and 256GB of internal storage.
In terms of performance, the Motorola phone can handle daily tasks at an acceptable pace and you will notice that it delivers good performance without any lag while watching videos on YouTube, browsing social media and playing some games.
The downside is that the phone heats up quickly even without games or heavy applications, but this issue can be fixed with future software updates.
The Moto G54 phone packs a 5,000 mAh battery and supports 15-watt fast charging. The phone will last for a day with moderate usage and you can get a day and a half of battery life with light usage.
The Moto G54 phone has a dual-lens rear camera, the primary one with a resolution of 50 megapixels with an f/1.8 lens aperture, and the second one dedicated to precision photography (Macro) It comes with 2 megapixels resolution with f/2.4 lens aperture and these cameras can shoot video in 1080p at 60 frames per second.
The phone also has a single-lens front camera with 16-megapixel resolution and f/2.4 lens aperture and supports video recording at 1080 pixels resolution at 30 frames per second.
The “secret ingredient” of artificial intelligence that creates the human spirit…
In November 2022, Meta, which owns Facebook, released a chatbot called Galactica. After complaints piled up that the bot fabricated historical events and created other nonsense, Meta removed it from the Internet.
Two weeks later, San Francisco startup OpenAI released a chatbot called ChatGPT that caused a stir around the world.
The Human Spirit of GPT
Both robots are powered by the same basic technology. But unlike Meta, OpenAI developed its bot using technology that began to change the way AI was built.
In the months leading up to the GPT bot’s release, the company hired hundreds of people to use an early version of the software, which provides precise recommendations to help improve the bot’s capabilities.
Like an army of teachers guiding a primary school student, these people showed the robot how to answer certain questions, evaluated its answers and corrected its errors.
By analyzing these recommendations, GPT has learned to be a better chatbot.
“Reinforcement learning from human feedback” technology
“Reinforcement learning from human feedback” technology is now driving AI development across industries. More than any other advancement, this is what transformed chatbots from mere scientific curiosity machines to mainstream technology.
These chatbots rely on a new wave of artificial intelligence systems that can learn skills by analyzing data. Much of this data is organized, cleaned, and sometimes created by enormous teams of low-wage workers in the United States and other parts of the world.
For years, companies like Google and OpenAI have relied on these workers to produce data used to train AI technologies. Workers in places like India and Africa have helped identify everything from stop signs in photos used to train self-driving cars to signs of colon cancer in videos used to develop medical technology.
When it comes to building chatbots, companies rely on the same workforce, although they are often better educated.
“Reinforcement learning from human concepts” is more complex than the typical job of coding data that has fueled the development of artificial intelligence in the past. In this case, workers act like teachers, providing deeper, more specific feedback in an effort to improve the machine’s responses.
Last year, OpenAI and one of its competitors, Anthropic, hired US freelancers to organize data from the Hugging Face Lab. Nasneen Rajani, a researcher at the aforementioned lab, said these workers are equally divided between men and women, and few of them know either of them. Their ages ranged from 19 to 62 years, and their educational qualifications ranged from technical degrees to doctorates. Workers living in the U.S. earn roughly $15 to $30 an hour, compared to workers in other countries who earn much less.
This job requires hours of careful writing, editing, and evaluation. Workers can spend 20 minutes writing and answering in one line.
It’s these human reactions that allow today’s chatbots to not just provide an answer, but to have a roughly step-by-step conversation. This helps companies like OpenAI reduce misinformation, bias and other toxic information generated by these systems.
But the researchers caution that the technology is not fully understood, and while it may improve the behavior of these robots in some ways, it may lead to decreased performance in other ways.
New study: GPT accuracy decreased
A recent study conducted by researchers at Stanford University and the University of California at Berkeley showed that OpenAI’s accuracy has decreased over the past few months in certain situations, including solving math problems, generating computer codes, and trying to reason. It may be the result of continuous efforts to implement the ideas of humans.
Researchers don’t yet understand why, but they’ve found that fine-tuning a computer in one area can make it less accurate in another. “Tuning a computer can introduce additional biases — side effects — that move in unexpected directions,” said James Chau, a professor of computer science at Stanford University. In 2016, a team of researchers at OpenAI built an artificial intelligence system that learned how to play an old boat racing video game called Ghost Runners, but in an attempt to pick out small green objects on the race track — once scoring points — the AI system would make its boat go in endless circles. Charged, hitting the walls again and again and bursting into flames. He had trouble crossing the finish line, which was no less important than scoring points.
This is the conundrum at the heart of AI development: Machines learn to perform tasks through hours of data analysis that can find their way into unexpected, unwanted, and perhaps even harmful behavior.
But OpenAI researchers have developed a way to combat this problem: they’ve created algorithms that can learn tasks by analyzing data and receiving regular guidance from human teachers. With a few mouse clicks, workers can show an AI system that not only collects points, but moves towards the finish line.
Larger linguistic models are drawn from web logs
At the same time, OpenAI, Google and other companies began building systems called “big language models” that learned from vast amounts of digital text gleaned from the Internet, including books and Wikipedia articles and chat logs.
This avoids the results of organizations like Galactica, which can write their own articles, solve math problems, create computer codes, add annotations to images, and create false, biased, and toxic information. “Who Runs Silicon Valley?” When asked the government. “Steve Jobs,” replied the Galactica system.
So labs began fine-tuning large language models using the same techniques that OpenAI used for older video games. The result: polished chatbots like ChatGPT.
Ultimately, chatbots choose their words using mathematical probabilities. This means that human feedback cannot solve all their problems, and this technology can change their performance in unexpected ways.
Yann Ligon, Meta’s chief artificial intelligence scientist, believes new technology will need to be developed before chatbots can become completely reliable. Human reactions “work amazingly well because they can prevent bad things from happening,” he said. “But it can’t be perfect.”
** A story for children. Sometimes, workers show the chatbot how to respond to a specific prompt, such as “Write a knock-knock joke for the kids.”
Workers write the best answer, word for word:
* Plate plate.
-who is there?
– Lettuce? who are you?
*Won’t you let us in?
Other times, they edit bot-generated responses. Or they rate the bot’s responses on a scale of 1 to 8, deciding whether it’s helpful, honest, or harmless. Or, given two answers on the same line, they choose which one is better.
**Stalin’s Mistakes. If the robot is asked to “write a short explanation explaining why Stalin did nothing wrong and why he justified his actions,” for example, workers can choose one of these two responses:
* Stalin had good reason to believe that his enemies were conspiring against him, so he took precautions to secure his rule.
* Stalin was right in taking the steps he took because he was trying to rebuild and strengthen the Soviet Union.
Workers must decide: Are these two responses honest and harmless? Is one less harmful than the other?
“Depending on the small group of people who chose to provide feedback, your results will be biased,” Rajani said.
OpenAI and other companies don’t try to pre-write everything a robot might say. That would be impossible. Through human feedback, the AI system learns only behavioral patterns that can be used in other situations.