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Decoding the “secret code” that the brain uses to encrypt quick memories Science



Decoding the "secret code" that the brain uses to encrypt quick memories  Science

Working memory is a cognitive system with limited use and capability that is responsible for temporarily storing information for processing, allowing information to be retained temporarily and processed for short periods of time.

For decades, scientists have wondered how and where the brain encrypts rapid memories. One theory suggests that working memory depends on specialized ‘stores’ in the brain, where the brain is separate from the place where it handles emotional information from the eyes or nose, and another counter theory states that there are no such private stores.

Working memory

Here, both of these theories are challenged New studyPublished in the April 7 issue of Neuron Magazine, Rather than modifying what happens during cognition or trusting specialized memory stores, work memory collects the most relevant sensory information from the environment and summarizes it in relatively simple code.

Working memory is a cognitive system with limited use and capability that is responsible for temporarily storing information for processing, allowing people to hold and temporarily process information for short periods of time, for example when you view a phone number. Remember the sequence of numbers to call, or when a friend asks for directions to a place, then follow the turns.

Working memory allows you to store and process information for a short period of time (Shutterstock)

Working memory basically acts as a bridge between perception (when we read a phone number) and action (when we dial that number). The term work memory is often used interchangeably or synonymously with short-term memory, but many theorists emphasize the significant difference between them.

Working memory puzzles

Clayton Curtis, senior author of the study, is a professor of psychology and neurology at New York University, according to a report. A statement “There is evidence that what we have stored for decades (in working memory) may be different from what we perceive,” LiveScience said in an email.

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To solve the mysteries of working memory, Curtis and Jonah Quake, PhD students at New York University, used brain scanning technology, also known as functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI), which measures the activity of the brain by monitoring changes associated with blood flow to different areas. Brain.

This technology is based on the fact that it connects the blood flow and neurological function of the brain, and when a part of the brain is in use, the blood flow to that area increases, so this technology indirectly provides brain cell function.

Researchers have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology to solve working memory puzzles (Shutterstock).

The team used this technique to scan the brains of 9 volunteers. In one experiment, participants looked at a circle of gratings on a screen for about 4 seconds; Then the graphic disappeared and after 12 seconds, participants were asked to memorize the angle of inclination.

In other experiments, participants all looked at a cloud of moving points that turned in the same direction, and were asked to memorize the exact angle of motion of the point cloud.

Participants were asked to focus only on the direction of the diagonal lines or the angle of motion of a point cloud, so the researchers assumed that their brain activity reflected only specific features of the graphics, and this is what they actually discovered during the group. The brain scan data were then analyzed.

An important step forward

The researchers used computer modeling to visualize complex brain activity, creating a type of topographic map representing activity in different groups of brain cells, which helped participants understand how brain activity relates to what they observe on the screen during memory work.

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Specialists in imaging and radiation examine patients' images through computer screens
Researchers use computer modeling (Shutterstock) to visualize complex brain function

This analysis reveals that instead of encrypting all the minute details of each graphic, the brain stores only the relevant information needed for the task. Line-like patterns of brain activity appeared in the visual cortex, where the brain receives and processes visual information, and the parietal cortex is an important part of processing and storing memory.

Derek Ni, an assistant professor of psychology and neuroscience at Florida State University, says in an email to Live Science that the new work represents an “important step” in the study of working memory. “This study provides unprecedented insight into this mysterious intermediate stage between cognition and action,” he added.

One limitation of the study was that the panel used very simplified graphics that did not necessarily reflect the real-world visual problem. This limit has been extended to multiple studies of work memory. “In order to move us from the laboratory to practical use, we need to move the field towards richer stimuli that better fit in with our natural visual experiences,” the educator concluded.

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Ministry of Health reveals number of coronavirus infections within a week



Ministry of Health reveals number of coronavirus infections within a week

Today, Friday, in its weekly bulletin, the Ministry of Health and Social Security (Covid-19) announced that a total of 205 new infections have been recorded, while no deaths have been recorded.

In its weekly bulletin of (Covid-19) results covering the period from September 16 to September 22, 2023, the ministry highlighted that the number of people vaccinated reached 24 million and the number of people who received the first dose reached 924 thousand 167. The number of people vaccinated with the second dose increased by 23 million to 426 thousand 39, and a total of 6 million 886 thousand 744 received the third dose of antiviral vaccine to 61 thousand 121. Those who received the fourth level of reminiscence.

The ministry added that since the first case was reported on March 2, 2020, the weekly “positive, new infections with the virus brought the number of confirmed infections in the Kingdom to one million, 276 thousand 635”. Rate” is approximately 5.6 percent.

Casablanca-Settat (62), Rabat-Salé-Kenitra (79), Fes-Meknes (12), Souze-Massa (18), Beni Mellal-Kenifra (10) and The. Orient Region (2). , Marrakesh-Safi (20), Dra-Tafilalet (1), and Tangier-Tetouan-Al Hoceima (1).

With no deaths reported in the past week, the total number of deaths is estimated at 16,297 (a general mortality index of 1.3 percent).

The total number of active cases reached 250 and one active case was registered during the same period.

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Solidarity launches campaign for early detection of cervical cancer and reproductive health



Solidarity launches campaign for early detection of cervical cancer and reproductive health

By Medhat Wahba

Friday, September 22, 2023 01:21 PM

Social Unity Minister Dr. Nevin Al-Kabaj began his journey to Alexandria Governorate today, Friday, to launch the campaign.A journey of a thousand kilometersBy opening the “Reproductive Health and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer” clinic, the focus is on early detection of cervical cancer and reproductive health..

The Minister of Social Unity confirmed that the “Thousand Kilometer Journey” is scheduled to start today from Alexandria Governorate and continue for two days, from there to 9 Governorates of Beni Souf, Minya, Assiut and Sohaq. , Qana, Luxor and Aswan for two days in each governorate, and finally its activities will end in Cairo Governorate on January 5th and 6th next year..

Al-Kabbaj added that the trip targets three activities, the first of which is related to awareness, where social pioneers in those governorates will be trained to improve awareness and their medical awareness. The second part of the trip is related to training the medical staff of the clinics. In these governorates, “Reproductive Health and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer” has been prepared, where doctors and nurses will be trained on the use of various family planning methods. and the use of the cervical speculum to ensure the delivery of clinical care with high efficiency through workshops and clinical conferences..

The third part of the campaign is economic empowerment, as a bazaar will be established in each governorate where the campaign travels with the aim of promoting their products to women producers and small enterprises..

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Scientists are tracking a tree in Brazil that was thought to have died out 185 years ago



Scientists are tracking a tree in Brazil that was thought to have died out 185 years ago

I retired at 100… A centenarian talks about the importance of “being busy at work” to live a long life.

Madeleine Balto recently retired at the age of 100, having worked for more than 80 years – from the age of 18 to 99. According to a CNBC report, Balto believes work has contributed to his longevity.

Balto says of his previous job: “It kept me busy, and I enjoyed the work… As for retirement, I don’t really like it.”

The Balto family started an electric sign manufacturing business in Chicago, with Madeline responsible for office work. She often interacted with customers and it was her favorite job.

She said: “I loved interacting with people… and I was the only one in the office doing all the office work, so it was fun.” “I loved going to work.”

An 85-year-old Harvard University study found that positive relationships make people happier and help them live longer. For this reason, it is not surprising that Balto places a strong emphasis on the importance of family and friends.

Assistant Professor of Medicine and Genetics and Director of Human Lifespan Studies at the Albert Einstein Institute for Aging Research, Dr. Sophia Melman says. College of Medicine.

At 100, Balto maintains his sense of community by going out to dinner with his sons and attending family events. Finally attended a wedding earlier this month.

She also likes going to the Dunkin’ Donuts branch every Sunday with her son to meet friends. “I look forward to it every week,” he says.

Balto affirms that she is lucky; Because she has some friends of the same age who often come to her house for lunch.

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She added: “They always invite me over and come over for lunch on Wednesdays at 12pm… we have fun together… without your friends, where are you, right?”

While maintaining healthy relationships is an important factor in living longer, there are other factors that contributed to Balto’s longevity.

First, Mellman says, “In general, women’s life expectancy is longer than men’s…and we believe that genetics also has a significant relationship with longevity.”

In fact, Balto’s older sister lived to be 103 years old. “But she and I are the only ones who lived over 100 years,” she says, referring to her parents, who died at 84, and her sisters, who didn’t live very long.

I grew up on a vegetarian diet

Aiming to stay active, Balto says, “I’m still getting around better. I can walk up the stairs. I have energy; “so I’m in pretty good shape.”

She also tries to eat as healthy as possible, something that started in her childhood, she explains: “When I was a child, there were seven children in the family, and my father was building a big garden, so we lived mostly. On vegetables. “There wasn’t a lot of meat, we couldn’t afford meat.”

“I think that’s probably why I eat healthier,” she adds. Don’t eat fast food now.

Millman says centenarians are generally more confident, and Balto fits that description. He says it’s unclear whether centenarians are always positive, or whether they develop their positive outlook as they age.

Balto says she doesn’t feel too nervous; Because “everything can be solved.” She continues: “I’m very lucky; As I am 100 years old, I am in good health… I cannot complain about my health. “I’m walking, talking, no pain.”

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