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How did scientists know that there are two trillion galaxies in the universe? | Science



How did scientists know that there are two trillion galaxies in the universe?  |  Science

Astronomers expect to be able to look back 200 million years after the Big Bang through the James Webb Telescope.

Our visible universe, which spans billions of light-years in all directions, contains numerous galaxies. Each galaxy has a large galaxy. But have you ever wondered how many galaxies there are in the universe? Counting and calculating the limits of our tools seems like an impossible task.

According to For an article Released on Big Monday, the exact number of galaxies remains a mystery, with ratings rising from thousands to millions to billions, all with advanced telescope technology.

If we make the most accurate estimate using the best technology available today, we would say that there are 170 billion galaxies in our universe. But recent estimates suggest that there are more than two trillion galaxies in the universe, so we know that.

Hubble deep field image

The technique used by scientists to observe galaxies in the universe is to operate a telescope to observe for a long time in a certain empty space in the sky where there are no known stars or galaxies. The longer the telescope observes the space, the more light it collects – from a distance – so that more galaxies are found in the universe.

Scientists first did this in the mid-1990s using the Hubble Space Telescope, which focused on observing a specific sky over 32 million areas of the sky, almost none of which.

By observing that small sky, the Hubble Extreme Deep Field (XTF) image was created, revealing a total of 5,500 galaxies, indicating the highest density of galaxies ever observed. This is the best attempt by scientists to track the number of galaxies in the universe.

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The next step is to estimate the number of galaxies in the entire universe, which is one way, when we take a portion of the sky captured by a telescope. Then you can determine the number of galaxies in the universe by using the ratio of the area of ​​the sky to the whole universe.

Assuming that there is no significant cosmic variation and that the universe is homogeneous, the same evaluation method can be followed. Says Mario Livio, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. A statement Posted on “Space” According to Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity, the universe is identical to the cosmological principle.

Also, according to NASA, if you look at the contents of the universe, it appears almost identical everywhere and in all directions. This means that the matter in the universe is homogeneous, albeit averaging in very large quantities, which is called cosmological principle.

So, we can estimate the number of galaxies in the universe by taking the shape we observed in the form of the Hubble Deep Field, i.e. 5,500 galaxies, and multiplying it by the number of images that would cover the entire sky, i.e. 32 million. , Which will eventually form 176 billion galaxies in the universe.

However, this is not an actual estimate. This is a very small amount, because galaxies that are very faint, very small, or very close to other galaxies are visible in this estimate. Also, galaxies obscured by neutral gas and dust are nowhere to be seen, and galaxies outside the redshift capabilities of the Hubble telescope are nowhere to be seen.

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10 times the number of galaxies visible to Hubble (Shutterstock)

Two trillion galaxies .. How?

Today, scientists estimate that the number of galaxies visible to Hubble is 10 times greater than the number of galaxies in the observable universe. But how did this number come about?

According to BigThink, the big raw material to come up with a real estimate is how precisely the structure in the universe develops. If we can run a simulation that starts with the elements that make up the universe, the exact starting points that reflect our reality, and the exact laws of physics that describe nature, we can simulate how the universe came to be.

Significantly, when we look at simulations that best fit the observed data, we get an estimate of the actual number of galaxies in our observable universe, which is two trillion.

Our universe, which stretches in all directions, contains numerous galaxies (Shutterstock).

If we compare this number with the number we got from the “Hubble Deep Field” image, we can see that 90% of the galaxies in our universe are far beyond the detection capabilities of mankind’s largest laboratory.

Livio says astronomers could improve this figure by looking through the James Webb Space Telescope, as scientists expect the Hubble Space Telescope to look back at galaxies that formed about 450 million years later, while astronomers could look back to 200. Millions of years after the Big Bang by the James Webb Telescope.

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Anat Login 1445 Link to Saudi Health Service site



Anat Login 1445 Link to Saudi Health Service site

What are the steps to login? What is the link to the Saudi Health Service site? As Anah platform is considered as one of the most important and important health platform in Saudi Arabia, it provides many health needs and provides many electronic health services to health practitioners, so let’s review the steps to login through the following. Ana stage.

Link to Saudi Health Service site

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The Anat platform, or the so-called “Saudi Health Service Platform”, provides a wide range of health services to individuals in the Kingdom across all regions of Saudi Arabia.

This site operates in accordance with the instructions and guidelines of the Saudi Ministry of Health and if you wish to register on the site to receive the health services of the Ministry without visiting the actual sites and headquarters affiliated with the Ministry, you will have time. And try, here you are. Link to Saudi Health Service Platform “Anat Platform”..

Steps to login

If you want to complete the registration process within Anat platform “Saudi Health Service Platform”, Saudi Ministry of Health has allowed you to complete the registration process in very few steps and you will complete the registration process in few minutes. Steps to register on the platform now:

  • to login Anat Health Site.
  • Login to Anat platform and write “username, password”.

  • Enter your National Identification Number.
  • Then activate your account with your email.

Saudi Ministry of Health Contact No

If you have any inquiries or questions regarding the “Anana” service or other services included in the Saudi Ministry of Health, or if you wish to submit an objection or complaint, you can easily do so by contacting the number. 937 (Ministry’s speedy and toll-free number).

At the end of our article, we learned We reviewed the steps to log into the Anat platform, including the link to the Saudi Health Service site. According to the future vision of the kingdom, it wants to develop all its individuals, centers and official institutions as a whole. With the pace of technological and electronic development in the country around the world, provide a stable and secure life to every male and female citizen.

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Are nuts better for breakfast than eggs? Scientists have the answer



Are nuts better for breakfast than eggs?  Scientists have the answer

“Stem cells” show “promising results” in treatment of “multiple sclerosis”.

A recent study shows that injecting a type of stem cells into the brains of patients with multiple sclerosis achieves promising results and can protect the brain from damage from the disease.

The study, published Monday in the journal Stem Cell by researchers from Britain and Italy, is a step toward developing an advanced stem cell therapy for multiple sclerosis, a crippling disease that leaves some sufferers unable to walk on their own. walk in general.

More than two million people worldwide live with multiple sclerosis, which is caused by the body’s immune system destroying “myelin,” the protective sheath around the nerve fibers surrounding the brain and spinal cord. brain and other parts of the body.

Recent research advances have revealed that stem cell therapies can help reduce this vulnerability by infusing or transplanting “master” stem cells into the body.

After a previous successful study conducted in mice to test this approach, the researchers continued their new study in humans, where neural stem cells were injected directly into the brains of 15 multiple sclerosis patients in Italy.

Stem cells were extracted from cells taken from fetal brain tissue, and the researchers followed the patients for 12 months, during which time there were no treatment-related deaths or serious adverse effects.

At the start of the trial, all patients showed a high degree of disability, with most requiring a wheelchair.

However, during the 12-month follow-up period, none of them showed an increase in disability or worsening of symptoms, and none of the patients reported symptoms suggestive of relapse, and their cognitive functions did not deteriorate significantly during the study period. Researchers believe this indicates significant persistence of the disease.

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The researchers evaluated a subset of patients for changes in the volume of brain tissue associated with disease progression, and found that the higher the dose of injected stem cells, the smaller the brain volume over time.

Professor Stefano Pluchino, the lead researcher of the study from the University of Cambridge in the UK, says: “This study is the first phase of clinical trials in humans to assess the feasibility, safety and tolerability of neural stem cell injections in patients with multiple sclerosis.”

He added to Asharq Al-Awsat, “The success achieved by the group at this stage is a prerequisite for developing efficacy studies, which will be the next step for the research group,” pointing out that “experiments will be conducted in larger numbers. Patients should better monitor the therapeutic effects of this approach.”

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How to login to the My Health Qatar portal



How to login to the My Health Qatar portal

The My Health Qatar portal is an electronic platform launched by the Ministry of Health in the State of Qatar. Residents, citizens or residents of the State of Qatar can access and benefit from this portal for electronic delivery of all ministry services through this website. Services available, the most important of which is access to authorized facilities for medical examination of foreign workers.

My Health Portal

If you have an account on Qatar Health Portal and want to access this account, you must follow the following steps:

  • Go to My Health Portal by clicking this connection.

  • Enter your username or email.

  • Enter the password.

  • Click on Login button.

read more: Sehaty website link to login in Qatar

How to Register on Sehati Qatar Website

My Health PortalYou must open an account on the Sehaty website to avail the services offered by the site. These are the steps to follow to register on the site:

  • Fill the electronic form with the person’s information such as health card number.

  • Information recorded includes:

    • Qatar Identification Number

    • Patient name.

    • Father’s Name

    • Grandfather Name

    • phone number.

    • date of birth.

    • Nationality.

    • Note that the email ID is rewritten for confirmation.

    • Display code.

  • Terms and conditions of the site are accepted.

  • Click the Next button.

  • You will receive a verification code in a message on your mobile phone.

  • Click on the Verify option.

  • Click on the link sent to your email to activate the account.

read more: My Health Qatar.. How to create an account and log in to the My Health app

How to follow up on registration request on Qatar Health Portal

After submitting the registration application on the website, the submitted application is considered and accepted or rejected after three days of submission. If the application is not accepted, one has to visit one of the branches of Hamad Medical Institute. If the application is accepted, the following steps should be followed:

  • Access My Health Qatar website.

  • Enter the username or email you used to create an account earlier.

  • Enter the password.

  • Click on login to avail all the services offered by the site.

How do I view test results from the Sehaty app?

First, you need to access the application, then write the medical registration number and password, select the region to which it belongs, then enter the verification code sent to your phone, and then go to the list of test results.

When will medical report appear in Sehati application?

The medical reports are instantly displayed in the Shihati application, as the medical reports are constantly updated so that the person can get the report at any time.

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