Friday, June 21, 2024

How will the sun die and we will exist?! Scientists have the answer

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A team of scientists has made predictions about what the last days of our solar system will look like and when they will occur. “We humans will not be around to see this call of the sun’s curtain,” they suggest.

Previously, astronomers thought the Sun would become a planetary nebula (a glowing blob of cosmic gas and dust), until evidence suggested it must be slightly larger.

An international team of astronomers turned it around in 2018 and found that a planetary nebula is actually a solar corpse.

The Sun is about 4.6 billion years older than most other bodies in the Solar System that formed at the same time.

Based on observations of other stars, astronomers expect the Sun to reach the end of its life in another 10 billion years. But there are other things that happen along the way, of course.

In about 5 billion years, the Sun is scheduled to become a red giant. Its core would contract, but its outer layers would expand into Mars’ orbit, engulfing our planet; If it still exists.

Scientists are sure of one thing: We won’t be there by then. “Really, unless we find a way out of this impasse, humanity only has about a billion years left,” they added. This is because the brightness of the Sun increases by 10% every billion years. It may not seem like much, but this increase in brightness could end life on Earth. “Our oceans will evaporate and their surface will become too hot to form water.” This was reported on the scientific website “Science Alert”.

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Many previous studies have found that for a bright planetary nebula to form, the protostar must be twice as massive as the Sun. However, a 2018 study used computer modeling to determine that our Sun, like 90 percent of other stars, will shrink from a red giant to a white dwarf and then end up as a planetary nebula. “When a star dies, it ejects gas and dust (known as its atmosphere) into space. The envelope makes up half the star’s mass. “This exposes the star’s core.”

To explain further, Albert Zijlstra, an astrophysicist at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom, said, “The star runs out of fuel, and then the star goes out before it dies.” This is when the hot core causes the ejecta shell to shine brightly for about 10,000 years; It is a short period in astronomy. This makes a planetary nebula visible. “That makes some of them so bright that they can be seen at very great distances, up to millions of light-years, where the star is very faint.”

In this context, the data model developed by the team actually predicts the life cycle of different types of stars, to determine the brightness of planetary nebulae associated with different stellar masses.

Planetary nebulae are relatively common throughout the visible universe, the most famous of which are the “Spiral Nebula”, “Cat’s Eye” Nebula, “Ring Nebula”, “Bubble Nebula” and others.

About 30 years ago, astronomers noticed something strange: the brightest planetary nebulae in other galaxies all have roughly the same brightness. This means, at least in theory, that by looking at planetary nebulae in other galaxies, astronomers can calculate how far away they are.

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The data showed this to be true, but the models contradicted it, which has puzzled scientists ever since the discovery was made.

“Older, less massive stars should form fainter planetary nebulae than younger, more massive stars,” Zijlstra explained in 2018. “It has been a source of conflict for the last 25 years.” He continued, “The data points to the possibility of getting bright planetary nebulae from low-mass stars like the Sun, which models have suggested is unlikely. “Less than twice the mass of the Sun would form a planetary nebula too faint to see.”

The team’s models solved this problem by showing that the Sun is at the minimum mass of a star capable of forming a visible nebula. Even a star less than 1.1 times the mass of the Sun will not form a visible nebula.

On the other hand, massive stars, up to three times the mass of the Sun, form bright nebulae.

Nadia Barnett
Nadia Barnett
"Award-winning beer geek. Extreme coffeeaholic. Introvert. Avid travel specialist. Hipster-friendly communicator."

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