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How will the sun die and we will exist?! Scientists have the answer



How will the sun die and we will exist?!  Scientists have the answer

A team of scientists has made predictions about what the last days of our solar system will look like and when they will occur. “We humans will not be around to see this call of the sun’s curtain,” they suggest.

Previously, astronomers thought the Sun would become a planetary nebula (a glowing blob of cosmic gas and dust), until evidence suggested it must be slightly larger.

An international team of astronomers turned it around in 2018 and found that a planetary nebula is actually a solar corpse.

The Sun is about 4.6 billion years older than most other bodies in the Solar System that formed at the same time.

Based on observations of other stars, astronomers expect the Sun to reach the end of its life in another 10 billion years. But there are other things that happen along the way, of course.

In about 5 billion years, the Sun is scheduled to become a red giant. Its core would contract, but its outer layers would expand into Mars’ orbit, engulfing our planet; If it still exists.

Scientists are sure of one thing: We won’t be there by then. “Really, unless we find a way out of this impasse, humanity only has about a billion years left,” they added. This is because the brightness of the Sun increases by 10% every billion years. It may not seem like much, but this increase in brightness could end life on Earth. “Our oceans will evaporate and their surface will become too hot to form water.” This was reported on the scientific website “Science Alert”.

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Many previous studies have found that for a bright planetary nebula to form, the protostar must be twice as massive as the Sun. However, a 2018 study used computer modeling to determine that our Sun, like 90 percent of other stars, will shrink from a red giant to a white dwarf and then end up as a planetary nebula. “When a star dies, it ejects gas and dust (known as its atmosphere) into space. The envelope makes up half the star’s mass. “This exposes the star’s core.”

To explain further, Albert Zijlstra, an astrophysicist at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom, said, “The star runs out of fuel, and then the star goes out before it dies.” This is when the hot core causes the ejecta shell to shine brightly for about 10,000 years; It is a short period in astronomy. This makes a planetary nebula visible. “That makes some of them so bright that they can be seen at very great distances, up to millions of light-years, where the star is very faint.”

In this context, the data model developed by the team actually predicts the life cycle of different types of stars, to determine the brightness of planetary nebulae associated with different stellar masses.

Planetary nebulae are relatively common throughout the visible universe, the most famous of which are the “Spiral Nebula”, “Cat’s Eye” Nebula, “Ring Nebula”, “Bubble Nebula” and others.

About 30 years ago, astronomers noticed something strange: the brightest planetary nebulae in other galaxies all have roughly the same brightness. This means, at least in theory, that by looking at planetary nebulae in other galaxies, astronomers can calculate how far away they are.

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The data showed this to be true, but the models contradicted it, which has puzzled scientists ever since the discovery was made.

“Older, less massive stars should form fainter planetary nebulae than younger, more massive stars,” Zijlstra explained in 2018. “It has been a source of conflict for the last 25 years.” He continued, “The data points to the possibility of getting bright planetary nebulae from low-mass stars like the Sun, which models have suggested is unlikely. “Less than twice the mass of the Sun would form a planetary nebula too faint to see.”

The team’s models solved this problem by showing that the Sun is at the minimum mass of a star capable of forming a visible nebula. Even a star less than 1.1 times the mass of the Sun will not form a visible nebula.

On the other hand, massive stars, up to three times the mass of the Sun, form bright nebulae.

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After an ear piercing, your skin microbiome changes in a big way Science



After an ear piercing, your skin microbiome changes in a big way Science

The first study of the skin burrowing microbiome (the microbiome is the sum of human or other organisms living on the skin or in the gut) reveals how sudden perturbations such as burrowing can trigger fundamental ecological change. Increases biodiversity, lays the foundation for the development of burrows. A model for understanding how communities respond to rapid environmental change.

From the perspective of the bacteria, eukaryotes, and other microscopic organisms that call the skin home, a puncture is as catastrophic and terrifying an event as a giant earthquake or meteorite strike, and this has been demonstrated in microbial analysis.

Self-engineering of the ecological landscape

In a study conducted by a team from Canada’s McGill University, researchers for the first time introduced science to an unexpected environment, a tattoo parlor. In this first characterization of the human borehole microbiome, the unique human cultural practice of the borehole serves as a model system to better understand how biological communities reassemble after environmental disturbances.

The piercing process usually starts by disinfecting the skin and removing the microbes from it, then creating a new environment for the piercing, which is different from previously unpierced skin, and acts as a “clean slate” for colonization of new microbes. Social.

Charles Shaw, a doctoral student in biology who led the study, said in a press release from the university. Piercing the skin also represents an accidental act. “From Self-Engineering to Environmental Landscape in Human Skin.”

From October 2019 to March 2020, researchers recruited 28 people who had their ears pierced at a specific location in Montreal. Then, skin swab samples were collected before the participants got their ears pierced and several times during the two weeks after the piercings.

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A sudden event like ear piercing can drastically alter the skin microbiome (Shutterstock).

Understanding the biological effects of environmental phenomena

The results of the study, published in the journal Royal Society B, highlight how a sudden event like piercing can radically change the skin microbiome. Compared to unpunctured control cases, the puncture site showed an increase in the number of unique DNA sequences and species, indicating an increasingly diverse and ecologically complex microbiome at the puncture site, dominated by two opposite types of bacteria.

With this new understanding of the microbe that penetrates the skin, the study lays the groundwork for further research into the prevention and control of other types of piercing, tattoo microbe and skin infections, says Xu.

Looking beyond the human body, Shaw’s supervisor Professor Rowan Barrett said such studies could help understand the biological consequences of large-scale catastrophic environmental events.

“The hole represents a good model that can be followed to better understand the general processes associated with community assembly after environmental change,” he adds.

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10 Foods That Cause Anxiety And Stress.. Know What To Eat Instead



10 Foods That Cause Anxiety And Stress.. Know What To Eat Instead

Written by Merwat Rashad

Sunday, December 10, 2023 at 07:00 AM

Did you know that certain foods can cause anxiety and stress? While caffeine and sugar are known to affect our moods, many unexpected factors can exacerbate these feelings. In this report, we’ll critically examine 10 food triggers, explain why this effect exists, and suggest alternatives. Healthy to help you maintain a balanced and calm state of mind, according to the website “Onegreenplanet”.

1. Processed foods

It often contains Processed foods High amounts of refined carbohydrates, unhealthy fats and additives can cause your blood sugar to spike and crash, causing mood swings and increased anxiety. Choose whole, unprocessed foods like fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.

2. Artificial sweeteners

Artificial sweeteners like aspartame and sucralose have been linked to increased anxiety symptoms.Choose natural sweeteners like honey or enjoy the sweetness of natural fruit.

3. Fried foods

Fried foods are often high in unhealthy trans fats, which contribute to inflammation in the body and affect brain health. Instead, opt for baked or grilled alternatives for a healthier option.

4. High fructose corn syrup

High-fructose corn syrup, commonly found in sugary drinks and processed snacks, can increase inflammation and oxidative stress, which can worsen anxiety symptoms. Choose water, herbal teas, or homemade fruit juices instead.

5. Too much salt

Consuming too much salt can upset the balance of electrolytes in the body, leading to dehydration and stress. Instead use herbs, spices or citrus juices to enhance the flavor of your food.

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6. Fast food

Fast food is usually high in unhealthy fats, sodium and additives. These substances can negatively affect mood and contribute to feelings of anxiety. Choose home-cooked meals using fresh ingredients whenever possible.

7. Dairy products

Some individuals may be sensitive to dairy products, which can cause digestive problems and inflammation, which can affect mood and increase anxiety. Consider alternatives such as almond milk, coconut milk, or dairy-free yogurt.

8. Refined grains

Refined grains such as white bread, white rice, and pasta have a high glycemic index, causing rapid rises and falls in blood sugar levels. This can contribute to mood swings and feelings of anxiety. Choose quinoa, brown rice, and whole grains. Wheat bread instead.

9. Red meat

Consuming high amounts of red meat has been linked to higher levels of anxiety and depression. Try to include lean protein sources like fish, chicken or legumes in your diet.

10. Artificial food coloring

Artificial food coloring, commonly found in processed snacks and beverages, has been linked to hyperactivity and increased anxiety in some individuals, especially children. Choose natural food colors or snacks without artificial colors.

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Maiara has called for increased funding for climate and energy change



Maiara has called for increased funding for climate and energy change

Hepa Press – and MA

Nam Mayara, Chairman of the Council of Advisors and President of the Mediterranean Parliament, stressed on Saturday that parliamentary diplomacy has a very important role to play in solving climate change crises.

In her speech during the high-level segment of the COP28 conference, Mayara explained that parliamentary diplomacy is thrusting itself into the international arena to contribute to resolving crises, particularly in relation to strengthening affirmative action and intensifying efforts to curb climate change.

He said during the second session of the Marrakesh Parliamentary Economic Forum for the Euro-Mediterranean and the Gulf region, to be hosted by Morocco in June next year, “work will be carried out to establish a parliamentary group in the Euro-Mediterranean region”. Gulf for the promotion of renewable energies, which was established in the Mediterranean Parliament.” Average year 2022.”

He pointed to the current climate emergency and its unprecedented effects on the Euro-Mediterranean region and the Gulf, such that temperatures in the Mediterranean Sea are rising 20 percent faster than the global average, while the Gulf Sea is the warmest in the world.

After applauding the decision to implement a “loss and damage” fund to compensate countries most affected by climate change, he called for intensified efforts and increased funding for climate and energy change.

During another meeting held within the framework of the COP28 conference, Maira emphasized Morocco’s commitment to effectively contribute to the continent’s dynamics to protect Africa from the dangers of the climate crisis and protect the rights of future generations to development and progress.

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He pointed out that Africa is at the heart of the scourge of climate change, noting that it is the continent that emits the least amount of greenhouse gas emissions that lead to global warming, which undermines the continent’s capacity for growth, progress and prosperity. Fundamental rights of millions of Africans.

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