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Lived there 60,000 years ago… Scientists map hidden areas of habitation of first Australians | Science



Lived there 60,000 years ago… Scientists map hidden areas of habitation of first Australians |  Science

All Ice Age sites in western Arnhem were near the sea and, therefore, mangrove swamps at some point during the transition of this part of northern Australia.

During the late Pleistocene, sea levels were so low that Australia was connected to its northern neighbors Papua New Guinea and Indonesia in a supercontinent once called Sahul, but at the end of the last ice age and the ice sheets melted. About 10 thousand years ago, large parts of these lands were flooded.

A citizen of Australia’s first settlement

mentioned A statement Australia’s first people have been occupying these parts of northern Australia for at least 65,000 years, Science Alert published on May 30, based on thousands of stone tools and remains found in the Mudgetbabe Refuge in 2010. It points to the remarkable journey of skilled sailors who crossed sea and land bridges to inhabit the driest continent on Earth.

Despite all their efforts, archaeologists have yet to find another ancient site like Mudztbab, not because such sites don’t exist, but because they’re looking in the wrong places.

The existing landscape hides potential sites hidden from view or submerged. To aid the search, researchers working with the Nyangma Rangers, the traditional guardians of the Great Red Lily Lagoon in western Arnhem Land, reconstructed an ancient landscape buried under present-day seasonal flooding.

Pioneer methods

Flinders University scientists used ground-based imaging and aerial surveys to show how a significant portion of the Northern Territory changed due to sea-level rise 8,000 years ago. -made) in the region, known worldwide for its prominence and unique style.

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Researchers note – Their statement A report posted on the Flinders University website says that by examining how sea-level rise has changed sediments that are now buried under floodplains, researchers can see how the transformation of the Red Lily Lagoon led to the development of mangroves. In tropical coastal marshes, at high tide, where many roots intertwine above ground to form dense forests, the rock art of ancient tribes supported animals and marine life in the area, and this change fostered the ecosystem. Ancient rock inspired themes and animals in art.

Researchers use electrical resistivity tomography to map nature in northern Australia (Flinders University)

Environmental reflection in rock art

Inside Results In their findings, published today in the journal PLOS ONE, the researchers say the lake’s environmental changes are reflected in the rock art, as fish, crocodiles and birds appeared in the art when the low-lying terrain adjacent to the river flooded. To improve freshwater habitats for new animal species, mainly from river sediments and subject to flooding.

The mapping fundamentally changes our archaeological understanding of Arnhem Lands’ landscapes, says Dr Zarath Nulser, first author and research assistant at Flinders University’s School of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences. The settlement of Australia, the reconstruction of Red Lily Lagoon, enables useful predictive modeling of major cultural sites and provides an important method for interpreting the presence and origin of Aboriginal objects.”

He adds, “The timing of the rock art coincides with the broader environmental changes that we believe took place at this site. This is evidenced by changes in the subject matter of the art, such as the appearance of large marsupials. The appearance of coastal animal species such as fish and crocodiles, and the addition of freshwater species such as fish and birds, are recent art from this region. reflects the styles, and the levels of environmental change that occurred when it was a freshwater plain. That shaped the landscape.”

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Researchers study how sediments buried under floodplains change due to sea-level rise (Flinders University)

A better understanding of ancient history

“Based on the results of this study, all Ice Age sites in the west of the Arnhem Lands were close to the sea and, therefore, were mangrove swamps at some point during the transition of this landscape. This has important implications for the ancient geology. The settings of these sites,” says the researcher. This must be taken into account when interpreting changes in stone artefacts, food resources and the composition of material analogues of this period of early Australians.”

Co-author Associate Professor Ian Moffat said electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is a fast and low-cost method for mapping large areas of Australian landscapes to better understand their ancient history. “Create landscape models,” he says. “This can be useful for understanding known sites and predicting buried archaeological sites.”

“We have demonstrated that the topography of this region can be effectively mapped using simple methods. This has important implications for finding new sites, but also for more precisely understanding regional geography and its impact on past human behavior.”

He continues his speech, “The Red Lily Lagoon is of exceptional archaeological importance in the Arnhem Lands because it is located at one of the eastern points of the East Alligator River floodplain, where the modern river and the Arnhem Plateau form. The critical boundary between low-lying floodplains and sandstone highs, inhabited by humans for over 60,000 years, is Australia’s most There are countless sites of interest, including famous rock art.”

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If you can’t resist spicy food…foods that moisten your tongue and soothe your digestive system



If you can’t resist spicy food…foods that moisten your tongue and soothe your digestive system

By Anas al-Banna

Sunday, December 3, 2023 at 10:00 p.m

Some people like to eat a lot of spicy food and may not be able to resist it, although this may cause some problems with the taste buds of the tongue or the digestive system, and according to the website “My Health only“, can cause Chili pepper For various digestive problems like vomiting, indigestion, irritable bowel syndrome and constipation, there are ways to improve spice tolerance..

Cool ingredients from your diet to soothe chili problems

Eating cooling foods like yogurt, cucumber, mint and coconut are great ways to combat the heat of burning foods as they soothe the digestive system.

Stay hydrated

Spicy foods can cause dehydration, so be sure to stay hydrated, especially when eating spicy foods, drinking water and herbs to help balance and maintain balance.

Yogurt with hot dishes

Drinking curd after eating spicy food can help in relieving the heat caused by spicy food. Curd is a classic remedy, it contains probiotics and has a soothing effect on the digestive system.

Herbs like chamomile

Herbs like cilantro can help cut down on spicy flavors. Additionally, drinking herbal teas like chamomile or peppermint after meals can also help ease digestion after a spicy meal.

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Can earthquakes be predicted using artificial intelligence models?



Can earthquakes be predicted using artificial intelligence models?

The painful earthquakes in Turkey, Morocco and Afghanistan in 2023, which caused severe losses beyond thousands of deaths and injuries and severe damage to infrastructure, confirm the importance of constructing earthquake-resistant buildings. Many technological solutions are now available to increase the resistance of buildings to earthquakes, which may protect lives or mitigate their psychological and economic effects and consequences. Many international universities are also racing to develop technologies that can help predict earthquakes using artificial intelligence.

Major universities are developing new technologies to help predict earthquakes with artificial intelligence (Shutterstock).

Earthquake resistant designs

Earthquake-resistant design includes a range of technologies and methods to improve a building’s ability to withstand seismic forces. In an exclusive interview with Asharq Al-Awsat, architect Muhammad Obaid, founder and CEO of Emcon Architecture and Engineering Consultancy, explains the basic techniques and methods currently used in earthquake-resistant design. “Basic isolation systems range from shear walls, moment-resisting frames, anchorage systems, tuned mass dampers, viscous dampers, reinforced concrete, steel framing, flexible materials, energy dissipation devices, seismic retrofitting, design of non-structural components,” Obaid said. says. , and soil optimization, seismic hazard assessment, computer modeling and simulation, and building codes and standards.” He adds, “Engineers and architects combine these techniques and methods to create detailed earthquake-resistant designs designed to meet the specific needs and conditions of the building and its location, and the choice of techniques depends on factors such as the type of building, location, budget, and level of seismic risk.” “

Architect Mohammad Obaid is the Founder and CEO of “EMKON” Architectural and Engineering Consulting Firm (EMKON).

Restoration of old buildings

Retrofitting existing buildings with sustainable, earthquake-resistant technologies is certainly possible, but it requires careful planning, engineering expertise and compliance with local regulations. Architect Muhammad Obaid, speaking to Asharq Al-Awsat, believes that “existing buildings can be modernized with sustainable and earthquake-resistant technologies, although the process varies in complexity depending on the specific technologies and the structural and architectural characteristics of the building.” Some of the considerations for retrofitting existing buildings with these techniques include “structural retrofitting, material improvements, architectural considerations, engineering expertise, building codes and permits, cost considerations, phased approach, seismic evaluation and integration of sustainable technologies,” he explains. “Operational challenges and issues vary from one building to another, and a customized approach is often necessary to achieve desired seismic and sustainability goals while minimizing disruption to building occupants,” he notes.

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Anticipating aftershocks

Stanford University researchers have developed an artificial intelligence model that can predict aftershocks after an earthquake with more than 80 percent accuracy.

The model was trained on a dataset of more than 700,000 earthquakes from around the world, and it was able to identify patterns in more complex data that traditional methods could not detect, the researchers report.

The model works by analyzing seismic activity data sources, geological data and machine learning algorithms to identify patterns and trends associated with the occurrence of earthquakes. It can predict the size and timing of a setback. The model is still under development, but it can be a valuable predictive tool that can improve the accuracy and timeliness of aftershock warnings and help save lives and property.

The Japanese DLEPM model was trained on a dataset of over 10 million global seismic events (Shutterstock).

High precision Japanese model

Scientists at the University of Tokyo have succeeded in developing a model called Deep Learning Earthquake Prediction Model (DLEPM) that can predict with high accuracy by analyzing seismic activity patterns. The model was trained on a dataset of over 10 million seismic events from around the world. DLEPM analyzes a variety of data sources, including geographic data and machine learning algorithms. Japanese university researchers say it has proven to be very accurate in predicting. It is 80 percent successful in predicting magnitude 6 or greater earthquakes within a week of their occurrence.

“DLEPM” is still under development, but its potential is not limited to saving lives and property, but improving researchers’ understanding of earthquake processes and how and why they occur to develop new strategies to prevent them and mitigate their effects.

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Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States is developing an artificial intelligence model that could help predict earthquakes (Shutterstock)

Prediction of crack friction

Another AI model that can predict future fault friction is called the Deep Learning Fault Friction Model (DLFFM), developed by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the US.

Trained on a dataset of more than one million laboratory earthquakes, the model analyzes various data sources to identify patterns and trends associated with fault friction. They can be used to predict future friction at a given location, and how friction will change over time. DLFFM is still under development, but could be a valuable tool for improving the accuracy and timeliness of earthquake warnings.

Kengo Kuma, a Japanese architect, used carbon fiber to stabilize buildings and protect them from earthquakes (Shutterstock)

The innovative Japanese method

Japan is located on the Pacific “Ring of Fire” and is known for frequent seismic activity, prompting the design and construction of earthquake-resistant buildings.

An architectural firm affiliated with Kengo Kuma used carbon fiber to stabilize buildings and protect them from earthquakes. These materials are made from thermoplastic carbon fiber, a material with amazing tensile strength that rivals traditional building materials like steel. The innovation provides additional reinforcement to the building structure as carbon fiber ropes extend through a metal frame above the eco-friendly roof and then drop down the sides to reach the ground. Carbon fibres, separated in curtain-like fashion, form doors that lead to interior spaces draped over time and covered in white fabric.

The Stanford model works by analyzing seismic and geological data sources and machine learning algorithms (Shutterstock).

Cost of earthquake resistant buildings

Earthquake-resistant technologies can have a significant impact on the overall cost of a construction project. While these technologies are essential to ensure a building’s safety and resilience during seismic events, they can also add cost to a project. Architect Muhammad Obaid, founder and CEO of Imcon Architecture and Engineering Consulting, explains in an exclusive interview with Asharq Al-Awsad, “The degree of this influence depends on various factors, including specific technologies, the location of the project, the type of building and the level of seismic hazards. “Earthquake He believes that resisting technologies, materials and components, complexity of structural design, special systems, foundation systems, quality control and inspection, architectural modifications, seismic retrofits, local building codes, and degree of seismic risk affect construction costs. Project size and complexity and maintenance and life cycle costs.

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While earthquake-resistant technologies add upfront construction costs, they also lead to long-term benefits. Architect Muhammad Obaid says, “These benefits include increased safety, lower repair and reconstruction costs after an earthquake, and a possible reduction in insurance premiums. Some regions offer incentives or subsidies to cover the initial costs of incorporating earthquake-resistant technologies.” Generally, building an earthquake-resistant building costs more than a conventional building. According to architect Muhammad Obaid, this cost is “10 percent to 30 percent more than the cost of building a conventional building.”

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The most dangerous of them is the “breath of the dead” … Bad breath is a symptom of these serious diseases



The most dangerous of them is the “breath of the dead” … Bad breath is a symptom of these serious diseases

Some metabolic disorders can cause bad breath due to various problems in the intestines, blood or liver.

The following are the most important medical conditions that can cause complications:


  • A common condition that causes bad breath in the mouth and throat is diabetes because high glucose levels can cause the growth of harmful bacteria.
  • Because people with diabetes have insulin problems, cells may not get the glucose they need for energy, and instead the body starts burning fat-forming compounds called ketones.
  • Ketones accumulate in the blood and urine and cause bad breath.
  • One of these ketones is acetone, and it can cause breath to smell like nail polish.
  • If someone with diabetes notices the smell, they should seek medical advice as it could be due to diabetic ketoacidosis, a life-threatening condition.

Liver disease

  • If a person’s breath has a strong, foul smell, this is a sign that the liver is not filtering out toxins.
  • Doctors call this distinctive smell “the breath of the dead” because of its association with severe and fatal liver disease.

Kidney disease

  • Chronic kidney disease is a condition in which the kidneys are damaged and cannot filter the blood properly, which is why excess fluids and waste from the blood can build up in the body and cause other health problems such as heart disease and stroke.
  • People with kidney failure may develop bad breath.
  • As the kidneys begin to fail, the metabolic urea cannot be excreted effectively in the urine, and it accumulates in the blood and saliva.
  • The body converts urea into ammonia, which causes bitterness in the mouth and bad breath.
  • One in three people on dialysis say their breath smells like urine.
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Too much methionine in the blood

  • It is an increase in a specific protein building block (amino acid) called methionine in the blood.
  • People with this condition often have no symptoms, but if their breath, sweat, or urine smells like boiled cabbage, they should see a doctor.

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