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Study: Bacteria produce an important industrial product from wastewater Science



Study: Bacteria produce an important industrial product from wastewater Science

There are many challenges when considering scaling up chemical production in wastewater.

Butanediol (multifunctional) alcohol is used in polyester production and in a variety of industrial applications from pharmaceuticals to cosmetics.

While its production has traditionally relied on energy-intensive processes, a Chinese research team has taken a step forward in producing it using bacteria and industrial wastewater.

In a study published in the latest issue of the journal Nature Sustainability, the research team — which includes researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology and Harbin Institute of Technology — revealed details of their new method, and how they succeeded in using fast-growing marine bacteria…” Vibrio natrigens” was used for this purpose after they genetically engineered it to tolerate industrial wastewater pollutants.

Genetically Engineered Vibraio natrigens Bacteria Allowed to Produce Hydrogen Sulfide from Sewage Pollutants (Plus Blog)

Role of genetically engineered bacteria

Research teams have previously tried to use bacteria to treat industrial wastewater, but these biological solutions did not withstand the pollutants the bacteria removed.However, a Chinese team claims to have succeeded in overcoming this problem through genetic engineering.

Vibrio natrigens bacteria generally have exceptional tolerance to high salt concentrations and the ability to benefit from a variety of carbon sources and, with genetic modifications introduced by researchers, also have the ability to tolerate pollutants and heavy metals in wastewater. Purify the water, but also convert those pollutants into useful products like butanediol alcohol.

A press release published on the official website of the Chinese Academy of Sciences states, “Real industrial wastewater, with its composition of major organic pollutants, heavy metals, and complex pollutants, is toxic to bacterial cells and difficult to treat efficiently. It contains high amounts of salt and dissolved oxygen, therefore, using wastewater as a raw material for pectin difficultRhea“.

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To overcome this problem, the researchers used genetic engineering to help the bacteria cope with the pollutants, and they trained them to use different metals and different sources of carbon to produce a semiconductor material from wastewater used in the production of butanediol alcohol. .

Production of chemicals from wastewater relies on solar energy (Shutterstock)

Manufacturing process steps

The genetically engineered bacterial strain produced hydrogen sulfide from the pollutant, which was instrumental in facilitating the production of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles, an efficient light-absorbing semiconductor.

These nanoparticles, known for their biocompatibility, are activated by sunlight, enabling their efficient use in greatly enhanced production of butanediol alcohol.

The amount of material produced using this new approach was shown to exceed that achievable with bacterial cells alone. Also, the results showed the scale of the process as the research team succeeded in purifying 5 liters of wastewater with the support of sunlight.

Therefore, the method devised by the researchers not only has a low carbon footprint, but also reduces production costs, resulting in an overall lower environmental impact compared to both traditional bacterial fermentation and butanediol alcohol production methods based on fossil fuels.

Some scientists propose using treated water after making chemicals to irrigate lands (Getty).

Alternative method

Ibrahim El-Sherbini, founding director of the Nanoscience Program at Zewail City of Science and Technology in Egypt and director of the city’s Materials Science Research Center, has some reservations about the innovative method, which he describes as “different.” including the unsuitability of this method for industrial use.

Al-Sherbini says – in telephone reports to Al Jazeera Net – “Industrial wastewater varies from one industry to another and from one region to another, so to use this method, industrial wastewater must be selected with special specifications. It contains minerals that bacteria can metabolize to start the production process.” This makes widespread use of this site difficult.”

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The second reservation pointed out by El-Sherbini is that the treated wastewater will contain nanoparticles of cadmium sulfide, which is known for its biocompatibility, which means it does not harm human health, but this cannot be said absolutely.

He says, “It is known that this substance leaches into the human body in large quantities and becomes a substance with a toxic effect, so there must be a mechanism to remove water containing this substance after receiving the necessary chemicals. Must be prepared.”

El-Sherbini does not believe that using it to irrigate ornamental trees would be an appropriate solution, because water containing cadmium sulfide could seep into groundwater and reach humans in some form. What is required from wastewater?

Scaling up innovative technology industrially poses a challenge for researchers (Getty)

The challenge of practical application

The research team is aware of these challenges pointed out by El-Sherbini, as their current challenge is to find an economically viable and environmentally friendly approach to industrially expand the scope of this technology.

Xiang Gao, a researcher at the Shenzhen Institute of Synthetic Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and lead researcher of the study, told Al Jazeera Net in a special report via email, “In fact, we did our experiments with both 30 liters. and 100-liter bioreactors, and we treated 5 liters during the experiment. We produced 50 g of (2,3-butanediol).

He adds, “There are still many challenges when considering scaling up chemical production in wastewater. These challenges include the presence of unwanted impurities in the reaction process, sunlight that changes from day to day and from one area to another, and the complex steps involved in chemical separation and post-treatment.” Production of necessary goods.

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He continues, “These issues must be resolved for large-scale applications to succeed in the future. We also need to increase the economic value of the treatment by producing multiple products, which we succeeded in doing after publishing the study.”

He continues, “We produced chemicals other than 2,3-butanediol. For example, we produced isoprene, an essential component of synthetic rubber.”

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How to change exam date for expatriate workers in Kuwait



How to change exam date for expatriate workers in Kuwait

The International Information Network has a foreign worker examination service. Foreigners can book a medical examination to complete the residency transaction. Through this service, foreigners can also set up an appointment with a doctor. The service is to reschedule the date of medical examination and the center where the examination is conducted should be a government centre.

Examination of migrant workers

Workers can use the Expatriate Worker Screening Service by accessing the website of the Ministry of Health located in Kuwait. This service requires providing necessary information about foreigners and those requesting this service, so we will explain how to use this service. The following are:

  • Open the Ministry of Health website from here Here.
  • Select a box that says “Electronic Services.”
  • Select a box that says Request an appointment.
  • Put the civil number in your place.
  • Email reference is in place.
  • Write the mobile number.
  • Put your name, gender and your sponsor’s name in the designated box.
  • Write the serial number of the civil card.
  • I accept all terms and conditions.
  • Select the box marked Send.

read more: Link to transfer passport and residence data from one passport to another in Kuwait.

Requirements for reservation of medical examination appointment for overseas workers

Examination of migrant workers

The Ministry of Health, located in Kuwait, has clarified the documents and papers required for successful screening of expatriate workers. Therefore, we will explain these papers and documents as follows:

  • The application should be submitted on the Ministry’s website.
  • Preparation of visa including foreigner’s Aadhaar number.
  • Acceptance of the Terms and Conditions of Use of the Meeting Service.
  • Submit all documents related to the client, as well as to the sponsor.

read more: Warning Period in New Kuwait Labor Law 2023

Inquire about medical screening for domestic workers and expatriates

After the expatriate has made the migrant worker selection, he needs to inquire about it, so to do this, we will explain some important steps to be followed below:

  • Open the Ministry of Health website from here Here.
  • Select the box that says Clinical Test Result.
  • Put the reference code in the appropriate place.
  • Select a box that says “Submit.”
  • Thus, all the information about the list of overseas workers will appear in front of you.

How do I get the results of the medical test?

The Ministry of Health of the Government of Kuwait sends the examination results to an approved electronic program called Effada launched by the Passport Department.

What are residency screening tests?

The foreigner undergoes a comprehensive medical examination, chest x-ray examination and tests for acquired immunity and tests for hepatitis C virus and syphilis.

How long does the medical examination take?

The clinical examination takes several hours and may take more than a day.

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After an ear piercing, your skin microbiome changes in a big way Science



After an ear piercing, your skin microbiome changes in a big way Science

The first study of the skin burrowing microbiome (the microbiome is the sum of human or other organisms living on the skin or in the gut) reveals how sudden perturbations such as burrowing can trigger fundamental ecological change. Increases biodiversity, lays the foundation for the development of burrows. A model for understanding how communities respond to rapid environmental change.

From the perspective of the bacteria, eukaryotes, and other microscopic organisms that call the skin home, a puncture is as catastrophic and terrifying an event as a giant earthquake or meteorite strike, and this has been demonstrated in microbial analysis.

Self-engineering of the ecological landscape

In a study conducted by a team from Canada’s McGill University, researchers for the first time introduced science to an unexpected environment, a tattoo parlor. In this first characterization of the human borehole microbiome, the unique human cultural practice of the borehole serves as a model system to better understand how biological communities reassemble after environmental disturbances.

The piercing process usually starts by disinfecting the skin and removing the microbes from it, then creating a new environment for the piercing, which is different from previously unpierced skin, and acts as a “clean slate” for colonization of new microbes. Social.

Charles Shaw, a doctoral student in biology who led the study, said in a press release from the university. Piercing the skin also represents an accidental act. “From Self-Engineering to Environmental Landscape in Human Skin.”

From October 2019 to March 2020, researchers recruited 28 people who had their ears pierced at a specific location in Montreal. Then, skin swab samples were collected before the participants got their ears pierced and several times during the two weeks after the piercings.

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A sudden event like ear piercing can drastically alter the skin microbiome (Shutterstock).

Understanding the biological effects of environmental phenomena

The results of the study, published in the journal Royal Society B, highlight how a sudden event like piercing can radically change the skin microbiome. Compared to unpunctured control cases, the puncture site showed an increase in the number of unique DNA sequences and species, indicating an increasingly diverse and ecologically complex microbiome at the puncture site, dominated by two opposite types of bacteria.

With this new understanding of the microbe that penetrates the skin, the study lays the groundwork for further research into the prevention and control of other types of piercing, tattoo microbe and skin infections, says Xu.

Looking beyond the human body, Shaw’s supervisor Professor Rowan Barrett said such studies could help understand the biological consequences of large-scale catastrophic environmental events.

“The hole represents a good model that can be followed to better understand the general processes associated with community assembly after environmental change,” he adds.

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10 Foods That Cause Anxiety And Stress.. Know What To Eat Instead



10 Foods That Cause Anxiety And Stress.. Know What To Eat Instead

Written by Merwat Rashad

Sunday, December 10, 2023 at 07:00 AM

Did you know that certain foods can cause anxiety and stress? While caffeine and sugar are known to affect our moods, many unexpected factors can exacerbate these feelings. In this report, we’ll critically examine 10 food triggers, explain why this effect exists, and suggest alternatives. Healthy to help you maintain a balanced and calm state of mind, according to the website “Onegreenplanet”.

1. Processed foods

It often contains Processed foods High amounts of refined carbohydrates, unhealthy fats and additives can cause your blood sugar to spike and crash, causing mood swings and increased anxiety. Choose whole, unprocessed foods like fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.

2. Artificial sweeteners

Artificial sweeteners like aspartame and sucralose have been linked to increased anxiety symptoms.Choose natural sweeteners like honey or enjoy the sweetness of natural fruit.

3. Fried foods

Fried foods are often high in unhealthy trans fats, which contribute to inflammation in the body and affect brain health. Instead, opt for baked or grilled alternatives for a healthier option.

4. High fructose corn syrup

High-fructose corn syrup, commonly found in sugary drinks and processed snacks, can increase inflammation and oxidative stress, which can worsen anxiety symptoms. Choose water, herbal teas, or homemade fruit juices instead.

5. Too much salt

Consuming too much salt can upset the balance of electrolytes in the body, leading to dehydration and stress. Instead use herbs, spices or citrus juices to enhance the flavor of your food.

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6. Fast food

Fast food is usually high in unhealthy fats, sodium and additives. These substances can negatively affect mood and contribute to feelings of anxiety. Choose home-cooked meals using fresh ingredients whenever possible.

7. Dairy products

Some individuals may be sensitive to dairy products, which can cause digestive problems and inflammation, which can affect mood and increase anxiety. Consider alternatives such as almond milk, coconut milk, or dairy-free yogurt.

8. Refined grains

Refined grains such as white bread, white rice, and pasta have a high glycemic index, causing rapid rises and falls in blood sugar levels. This can contribute to mood swings and feelings of anxiety. Choose quinoa, brown rice, and whole grains. Wheat bread instead.

9. Red meat

Consuming high amounts of red meat has been linked to higher levels of anxiety and depression. Try to include lean protein sources like fish, chicken or legumes in your diet.

10. Artificial food coloring

Artificial food coloring, commonly found in processed snacks and beverages, has been linked to hyperactivity and increased anxiety in some individuals, especially children. Choose natural food colors or snacks without artificial colors.

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