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The black hole orbits near it – ‘totally unexpected’



The black hole orbits near it - 'totally unexpected'

Researchers at the University of Turku in Finland have found that rotation axis a[{” attribute=””>black hole in a binary system is tilted more than 40 degrees relative to the axis of stellar orbit. The finding challenges current theoretical models of black hole formation.

The observation by the researchers from Tuorla Observatory in Finland is the first reliable measurement that shows a large difference between the axis of rotation of a black hole and the axis of a binary system orbit. The difference between the axes measured by the researchers in a binary star system called MAXI J1820+070 was more than 40 degrees.

Artist impression of the X-ray binary system MAXI J1820+070 containing a black hole (small black dot at the center of the gaseous disk) and a companion star. A narrow jet is directed along the black hole spin axis, which is strongly misaligned from the rotation axis of the orbit. Image produced with Binsim. Credit: R. Hynes

Often for the space systems with smaller objects orbiting around the central massive body, the own rotation axis of this body is to a high degree aligned with the rotation axis of its satellites. This is true also for our solar system: the planets orbit around the Sun in a plane, which roughly coincides with the equatorial plane of the Sun. The inclination of the Sun rotation axis with respect to orbital axis of the Earth is only seven degrees.

“The expectation of alignment, to a large degree, does not hold for the bizarre objects such as black hole X-ray binaries. The black holes in these systems were formed as a result of a cosmic cataclysm – the collapse of a massive star. Now we see the black hole dragging matter from the nearby, lighter companion star orbiting around it. We see bright optical and X-ray radiation as the last sigh of the infalling material, and also radio emission from the relativistic jets expelled from the system,” says Juri Poutanen, Professor of Astronomy at the University of Turku and the lead author of the publication. 

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انطباع فني عن النظام الثنائي للأشعة السينية MAXI J1820 + 070 الذي يحتوي على ثقب أسود (نقطة سوداء صغيرة في مركز القرص الغازي) ونجم مصاحب. يتم توجيه نفاثة ضيقة على طول محور دوران الثقب الأسود ، والذي يكون منحرفًا بشدة عن محور دوران المدار. أنتجت الصورة مع بنسيم. الائتمان: R. Hynes

باتباع هذه النفاثات ، تمكن الباحثون من تحديد اتجاه محور دوران الثقب الأسود بدقة شديدة. عندما بدأت كمية الغاز المتساقطة من النجم المرافق إلى الثقب الأسود في الانخفاض لاحقًا ، خفتت درجة حرارة النظام ، وجاء جزء كبير من الضوء في النظام من النجم المرافق. وبهذه الطريقة ، تمكن الباحثون من قياس ميل المدار باستخدام تقنيات التحليل الطيفي ، وتزامن ذلك تقريبًا مع ميل المقذوفات.

“لتحديد الاتجاه ثلاثي الأبعاد للمدار ، يحتاج المرء أيضًا إلى معرفة زاوية موضع النظام في السماء ، مما يعني كيفية دوران النظام فيما يتعلق بالاتجاه نحو الشمال في السماء. تم قياس ذلك باستخدام تقنيات قياس الاستقطاب “، كما يقول جوري بوتانين.

تفتح النتائج المنشورة في مجلة Science آفاقًا مثيرة للاهتمام نحو دراسات تكوين الثقوب السوداء وتطور مثل هذه الأنظمة ، حيث يصعب الحصول على مثل هذا الاختلال الشديد في العديد من سيناريوهات تكوين الثقوب السوداء والتطور الثنائي.

كان الاختلاف الذي يزيد عن 40 درجة بين المحور المداري ودوران الثقب الأسود غير متوقع تمامًا. افترض العلماء غالبًا أن هذا الاختلاف صغير جدًا عندما قاموا بنمذجة سلوك المادة في فضاء زمني منحني حول ثقب أسود. النماذج الحالية معقدة بالفعل ، والآن تجبرنا النتائج الجديدة على إضافة بُعد جديد لها ، “يقول بوتانين.

المرجع: “اختلال دوران الثقب الأسود في المدار في ثنائي الأشعة السينية MAXI J1820 + 070” بقلم جوري بوتانين ، ألكسندرا فيليدينا ، أندريه في بيرديوجين ، سفيتلانا في بيرديوجينا ، هيلين جيرماك ، بيتر جي يونكر ، جاري جي إي كاجافا ، إليا كوزينكوف ، فاديم كرافتسوف ، فيلبو بيرولا ، مانيشا شريسثا ، مانويل أ.بيريز توريس ، وسيرجي س. تسيغانكوف ، 24 فبراير 2022 ، علم.
DOI: 10.1126 / science.abl4679

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تم التوصل إلى الاكتشاف الرئيسي باستخدام أداة قياس الاستقطاب DIPol-UF التي تم إنشاؤها داخليًا والمثبتة في التلسكوب البصري الشمالي ، المملوك من قبل جامعة توركو بالاشتراك مع جامعة آرهوس في الدنمارك.

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A probe will drop samples from the asteroid “Bennu” in the US desert on Sunday.



A probe will drop samples from the asteroid “Bennu” in the US desert on Sunday.

On Sunday, the American probe “OSIRIS-REx” dropped a valuable scientific payload in the Utah desert of the United States, the first samples of an asteroid brought to Earth by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is the largest sample collected to date from a similar astronomical object.

Scientists believe that these samples, collected from the asteroid “Bennu” in 2020, will help clarify the origin of the solar system and the formation of Earth as a habitable planet.

The landing is scheduled to take place around 9 am local time (15:00 GMT) on Sunday at a military site normally used to test missiles.

The OSIRIS-REx probe sends a capsule containing samples to an altitude of 100,000 kilometers above Earth, about four hours before landing.

The capsule’s final descent into the Earth’s atmosphere takes 13 minutes as it enters at a speed of about 44,000 kilometers per hour, causing friction to raise the temperature to 2,700 degrees Celsius.

The descent, monitored by military sensors, will be slowed by two successive parachutes, providing a smooth landing if all goes well.

The landing strip is 58 kilometers long and 14 kilometers wide. Rich Burns, mission director at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, said during a press conference in late August that it was “like shooting a dart across the basketball court and hitting it right in the middle of the goal.”

If it is clear the night before that the capsule may not hit the designated area it may be decided not to launch it. At this point, the probe will orbit the Sun before attempting to relaunch the capsule in 2025.

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Sandra Freund of Lockheed Martin, the manufacturer of the probe, cautioned that “(space) sample return missions are difficult because many problems can arise.”

NASA photo of a probe on the surface of the asteroid Bennu (AP).

Measures were taken in anticipation of the possibility of a “hard landing”. A test was conducted in late August, during which a replica capsule was dropped from a helicopter.

When the capsule lands on Earth, a team checks its condition before placing it in a net that will be lifted by a helicopter and transported to a temporary “clean room.”

The next day, the sample is flown to the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.

At this center, the capsule opens into another sealed chamber. Priority is given to not contaminating the sample with contaminants so as not to spoil the analysis and give false results. The process takes days.

NASA plans to hold a press conference on October 11 to announce the preliminary results.

However, part of the specimen will be preserved untouched so that future generations can study it using techniques not yet available.

“OSIRIS-REx” was launched in 2016, and in 2020, “Bennu” surprised scientists while collecting a sample for a few seconds, as the probe’s arm stuck to the surface of the asteroid, which showed that it was much less than its density. I thought.

But thanks to this, NASA expects the sample to contain about 250 grams of material, more than the original 60 gram target. According to project manager Melissa Morris, it is “the largest sample ever collected from a location outside lunar orbit”.

This mission is a first for the United States. But Japan has already arranged two. In 2020, the Hayabusa probe returned fine grains from asteroid Itogawa, and in 2020, Hayabusa 2 returned about 5.4 g from asteroid Ryuku.

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According to Melissa Morris, asteroids “Bennu” and “Ryuku” are similar in appearance, but “Bennu” may turn out to be completely different in its composition.

Asteroids are interesting because they are made of the original material of the Solar System 4.5 billion years ago. Although these materials changed on Earth, asteroids remained the same.

Dante Lauretta, the lead scientist at the University of Arizona, said that “Bennu” is rich in carbon and that the sample brought back “may represent the seeds of life carried by these asteroids at the beginning of our planet.” to this wonderful biosphere.”

“Bennu”, which is 500 meters in diameter, approaches the Earth once every six years around the Sun.

There is a small risk (1 in 2700 chance) of a collision with Earth in 2182, which would have a catastrophic impact. It would be useful to provide more information about its composition. Last year, NASA managed to bump into an asteroid and deflect it from its path.

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Important and exciting features and many surprises in iOS 17 update



Important and exciting features and many surprises in iOS 17 update

The hashtag iOS 17 is trending on social media platform “X” and many other websites, iPhone fans are waiting for the new operating system, after Apple announced its launch. As Apple offers users more features with every update be it looks, designs or experiences, specialized websites have reported many amazing features of this update.

iOS 17 brings new features to improve what Apple does every day, so you can express yourself like never before when you call or message someone.

Most Important Features of iOS 17 Update:
During its recent annual conference, Apple explained that the iOS 17 update will bring many important and exciting features to users of all its devices, and the most important of these features include:

– The iOS 17 update lets you personalize your phone calls, customize what people see when they call, and share content in new and convenient ways.

As for Messages, all your iMessage apps are in one place. If you press the new plus button, all the things you send often will be displayed – like photos, voice messages and your location.

One of the most important features is that you will be notified when you arrive safely, as the check-in app will automatically notify your friend or family member when you reach your destination, such as your home.

The iOS 17 update will also let you jump to the first message you don’t see in a conversation, and you can swipe right on any message to send a reply.

– As for search filters, you can quickly find the searched message by combining search filters to quickly narrow down the search.

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The iOS 17 update also includes a number of big improvements like contact stickers for phone calls, improvements to AirDrop, and a full-screen standby experience while your iPhone is charging.

The update will offer live voicemail scanning, and a new Name Drop feature will allow iPhone users to exchange contact information by trying each other’s phones.

iOS 17 brings improvements and new features to autocorrect and predictive text.

iOS 17 will let FaceTime users send video messages to people they call but don’t answer.

– To meet the needs of people with cognitive disabilities, there will be an assistive accessibility feature that focuses on key features in apps and experiences.

– The Personal Voice feature allows people with aphasia to set up a voice that sounds like their own and use it with the Live Talk feature to communicate in calls and chats.

– Point and Speak feature allows visually impaired people to interact with physical objects with text labels.

As for the reminder service, the grocery lists feature automatically categorizes items and organizes them into different categories to make the shopping process easier. The list will save your preferences when you change the way you order.

– People Photo Album now better recognizes your favorite people and your family’s favorite cats and dogs.

Some components are delayed in the new update
According to Apple, the iOS 17 update will not include all the features released, as some key components such as the Journal app will be delayed to later versions.

Journal application
Journal is a new app that allows iPhone users to capture their daily experiences and memories in a detailed manner.

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The app will allow users to add text, photos, music and audio recordings to their journal entries, and the app will also offer personalized recommendations based on the user’s recent activity on the device.

Steps to Update iOS 17
– First, back up all your important files to avoid any mistake, so back up your precious photos, videos and other files before setting them up to iCloud or any other storage service.

– Phone must be charged before updating.

-You should have some free space to download the update which is usually around 10GB.

– Connect to Wi-Fi network before starting iOS 17 updates.

How to download iOS 17?
– First you need to go to Settings and then click on General.

– Then you need to click on software update and select new beta update item under automatic updates.

– The ability to install “iOS 17 Public Beta” will appear on the screen.

– Click Install to start the download.

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iPhone 15 has a new and improved charging system. How you can benefit from it



iPhone 15 has a new and improved charging system.  How you can benefit from it

Written by Sama Labib

Saturday, September 23, 2023 12:00 AM

She got up Apple Describing how the new 80% charge limit setting for the iPhone 15 works in the update via its support page, Apple said this is what you can expect if you enable the setting:

If you choose the 80% limit, your iPhone will charge up to about 80% and stop charging. If the battery charge level drops to 75%, theverge reports that charging will continue until the battery charge level reaches around 80% again. .

With the 80% limit enabled, your iPhone will occasionally charge up to 100% to accurately gauge the battery’s charge level, and this new option joins the optimized battery charging system that’s been around on Apple devices for a few years.

This setting keeps the battery at 80% before it reaches its maximum capacity before you think you need to use the phone based on your usage patterns.

The new 80% limit will help prevent the unexpected drop in battery capacity reported by many iPhone 14 and iPhone 14 Pro devices recently, and allows iPhone 15 series users to know the number of charging cycles for the battery.

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