Connect with us


The universe may begin to expand and contract for billions of years



The universe may begin to expand and contract for billions of years

After about 13.8 billion years of continuous expansion, it could reach The universe According to new research published in the Journal of the National Academy of Sciences, it will soon become a plateau and then slowly begin to shrink.

In a new study published by ScienceAlert, three scientists have attempted to simulate the nature of dark energy – a mysterious force that appears to be rapidly expanding the universe – based on previous observations of cosmic expansion.

In the team model, dark energy is not a constant natural force, but a substance called essence, which decays over time.

Although the expansion of the universe has accelerated for billions of years, researchers have found that the repulsive power of dark energy can be weakened.

According to their model, the acceleration of the universe will end “quickly” within the next 65 years, and then within a hundred million years, the universe could completely stop expanding, but instead enter an era of slow contraction leading to billions of years. From now until the death or rebirth of space time.

Paul Steinhardt, director of the Princeton Center for Theoretical Science at Princeton University in New Jersey, said all of this could happen “remarkably quickly.”

He added: “If we want to go back sixty-five million years, we will reach the time when he struck. Asteroid The Cichloups landed and destroyed the dinosaurs … Sixty-five million years is a remarkably short time for us to speak of a universe. “

However, this model is based solely on previous observations of expansion – and the current state of dark energy in the universe remains a mystery – and it is currently impossible to test the study’s prediction, and its findings are mere theories.

See also  With updates to FaceTime and other features .. Apple Introduces New Version Of "iOS" | Technology

Vacuum energy

Since the 1990s, scientists have realized that the universe is expanding at a rapid rate, and that the distance between galaxies is now growing faster than it was billions of years ago.

Scientists have called the mysterious source of this acceleration dark energy – an invisible substance that works against the force of gravity, pushing large objects in the universe instead of bringing them closer.

Although dark energy makes up almost 70 percent of the total energy of the universe, its properties remain an absolute mystery.

A popular theory put forward by Albert Einstein states that dark energy is a cosmological constant – a constant form of energy embedded in the fabric of space-time. If, then, the force exerted by the dark energy never changes, the universe must continue to expand (accelerate) forever.

However, a different theory suggests that dark energy does not have to be constant to accommodate previously observed cosmic expansion.

Alternatively, dark energy can be a center – a dynamic field that changes over time.

In contrast to the cosmological constant, an object can be repulsive or attractive, depending on the ratio between its kinetic energy and its potential energy at a given time. For the past fourteen billion years, Essence has been a chaser.

For most of that period, his contribution to the expansion of the universe was minimal compared to radiation and matter. About five billion years ago, the center became the dominant component and the effect of gravitational pull accelerated the expansion of the universe.

“The question we ask in this study is, should this acceleration continue forever? If not, what are the alternatives, and how quickly can things change?” Steinhardt said.

See also  Beware of these common mistakes to extend the life of your non-stick pan

Dark energy death

In their study, Steinhardt and his colleagues, Anna Igas of New York University and Cosmin Andre of Princeton University, predicted how the properties of matter would change over the next few billion years.

To do this, the team developed a physical model of the center showing its repulsive and attractive forces over time, in line with previous observations of the expansion of the universe. Once the team’s model was able to reliably reconstruct the history of the expansion of the universe, the researchers withdrew their predictions for the future.

Gary Henshaw, a professor of physics and astronomy at the University of British Columbia, who was not involved in the study, said: “The researchers were surprised that the dark energy in their model could decay over time … weakening its strength.

According to the group’s model, the repulsion of dark energy may have begun to decline rapidly billions of years ago.

Under these circumstances, the rapid expansion of the universe is already slow today. Soon, perhaps in sixty-five million years, this acceleration will be completely stopped, and then in a hundred million years the dark energy will become attractive, and thus the whole universe will begin to shrink.

In other words, after about fourteen billion years of development, the universe may begin to shrink.

But this contraction will be very slow at first, no man still alive on earth will notice any change, and the universe will contract slowly for a few billion years to reach half its size.

read more

This section contains relevant articles placed in the relevant nodes field.

Is this the end of the universe?

Steinhardt said there are two possibilities after the universe begins to shrink: either the universe collapses completely until it shrinks, or shrinks to the point where it returns to its original state, or another big bang. Occurs – or a new remnant of the old universe that is a great “re-” that leads to the creation of the universe.

See also  Rare photo documenting the "death" of a star in space

In this second scenario, the universe follows a continuous cycle of expansion, contraction, disappearance, and regression as it continually collapses and reshapes itself.

If this is true, our present universe may not be the first or only universe, but rather the latest in an endless chain of universes expanding and contracting before us. And it all depends on the dynamics of the dark energy.

Henshaw described the new study for the center as “a perfectly reasonable assumption of what dark energy is.”

Since all of our observations on cosmic expansion come from objects millions to billions of light-years from Earth, current data can only give scientists an idea of ​​the past of the universe, not its present or future.

Therefore, the universe may be on the verge of extinction, and there is no way for us to know long after the contraction phase has begun.

“I think it boils down to how committed you are to that theory and, most importantly, how testable you are?” Henshaw said.

Unfortunately, Steinhardt admits, there is no better way to test whether the essence is real, or whether cosmic expansion has begun slowly.

Only in time will we know whether the future of endless growth or rapid decay awaits our universe.

Continue Reading
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


New feature from Google to increase Gmail space. Learn how to benefit from it



New feature from Google to increase Gmail space.  Learn how to benefit from it

Find accessible Android users G mail Their smartphones often face difficulty in managing their accounts, especially in light of many messages and the difficulty of deleting these messages at once, however, on the other hand, PC users can select multiple emails with the click of a button. Not in mobile use.

Smartphone users can select one message at a time to delete or archive it, or swipe controls can be customized for multiple functions.

According to a report by 9to5Google, the tech giant has added a ‘Select All’ button to Gmail on Android. A ‘Select All’ button is available in the desktop version of Gmail to select up to 50 emails at once.

The desktop version of Gmail also offers an additional “Select All Conversations in Inbox” option that users can click to select emails on a specific page.

The report claims that the Select All button will appear on both the Pixel and Samsung Galaxy, and the latest apps tool will reportedly be available on Android 14 (beta) and Android 13.

Google seems to be rolling out this server-side feature on a device-by-device basis, and it’s not directly tied to an app update, so not all users will see the change right away, and it’s only available to select users.

See also  OnePlus launches OnePlus 10 Pro in white - a unique masterpiece
Continue Reading


A probe will drop samples from the asteroid “Bennu” in the US desert on Sunday.



A probe will drop samples from the asteroid “Bennu” in the US desert on Sunday.

On Sunday, the American probe “OSIRIS-REx” dropped a valuable scientific payload in the Utah desert of the United States, the first samples of an asteroid brought to Earth by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is the largest sample collected to date from a similar astronomical object.

Scientists believe that these samples, collected from the asteroid “Bennu” in 2020, will help clarify the origin of the solar system and the formation of Earth as a habitable planet.

The landing is scheduled to take place around 9 am local time (15:00 GMT) on Sunday at a military site normally used to test missiles.

The OSIRIS-REx probe sends a capsule containing samples to an altitude of 100,000 kilometers above Earth, about four hours before landing.

The capsule’s final descent into the Earth’s atmosphere takes 13 minutes as it enters at a speed of about 44,000 kilometers per hour, causing friction to raise the temperature to 2,700 degrees Celsius.

The descent, monitored by military sensors, will be slowed by two successive parachutes, providing a smooth landing if all goes well.

The landing strip is 58 kilometers long and 14 kilometers wide. Rich Burns, mission director at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, said during a press conference in late August that it was “like shooting a dart across the basketball court and hitting it right in the middle of the goal.”

If it is clear the night before that the capsule may not hit the designated area it may be decided not to launch it. At this point, the probe will orbit the Sun before attempting to relaunch the capsule in 2025.

See also  The Best Xbox Controllers for Cloud Gaming in 2023

Sandra Freund of Lockheed Martin, the manufacturer of the probe, cautioned that “(space) sample return missions are difficult because many problems can arise.”

NASA photo of a probe on the surface of the asteroid Bennu (AP).

Measures were taken in anticipation of the possibility of a “hard landing”. A test was conducted in late August, during which a replica capsule was dropped from a helicopter.

When the capsule lands on Earth, a team checks its condition before placing it in a net that will be lifted by a helicopter and transported to a temporary “clean room.”

The next day, the sample is flown to the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.

At this center, the capsule opens into another sealed chamber. Priority is given to not contaminating the sample with contaminants so as not to spoil the analysis and give false results. The process takes days.

NASA plans to hold a press conference on October 11 to announce the preliminary results.

However, part of the specimen will be preserved untouched so that future generations can study it using techniques not yet available.

“OSIRIS-REx” was launched in 2016, and in 2020, “Bennu” surprised scientists while collecting a sample for a few seconds, as the probe’s arm stuck to the surface of the asteroid, which showed that it was much less than its density. I thought.

But thanks to this, NASA expects the sample to contain about 250 grams of material, more than the original 60 gram target. According to project manager Melissa Morris, it is “the largest sample ever collected from a location outside lunar orbit”.

This mission is a first for the United States. But Japan has already arranged two. In 2020, the Hayabusa probe returned fine grains from asteroid Itogawa, and in 2020, Hayabusa 2 returned about 5.4 g from asteroid Ryuku.

See also  The end call button on "Apple" returns to its usual place

According to Melissa Morris, asteroids “Bennu” and “Ryuku” are similar in appearance, but “Bennu” may turn out to be completely different in its composition.

Asteroids are interesting because they are made of the original material of the Solar System 4.5 billion years ago. Although these materials changed on Earth, asteroids remained the same.

Dante Lauretta, the lead scientist at the University of Arizona, said that “Bennu” is rich in carbon and that the sample brought back “may represent the seeds of life carried by these asteroids at the beginning of our planet.” to this wonderful biosphere.”

“Bennu”, which is 500 meters in diameter, approaches the Earth once every six years around the Sun.

There is a small risk (1 in 2700 chance) of a collision with Earth in 2182, which would have a catastrophic impact. It would be useful to provide more information about its composition. Last year, NASA managed to bump into an asteroid and deflect it from its path.

Continue Reading


Important and exciting features and many surprises in iOS 17 update



Important and exciting features and many surprises in iOS 17 update

The hashtag iOS 17 is trending on social media platform “X” and many other websites, iPhone fans are waiting for the new operating system, after Apple announced its launch. As Apple offers users more features with every update be it looks, designs or experiences, specialized websites have reported many amazing features of this update.

iOS 17 brings new features to improve what Apple does every day, so you can express yourself like never before when you call or message someone.

Most Important Features of iOS 17 Update:
During its recent annual conference, Apple explained that the iOS 17 update will bring many important and exciting features to users of all its devices, and the most important of these features include:

– The iOS 17 update lets you personalize your phone calls, customize what people see when they call, and share content in new and convenient ways.

As for Messages, all your iMessage apps are in one place. If you press the new plus button, all the things you send often will be displayed – like photos, voice messages and your location.

One of the most important features is that you will be notified when you arrive safely, as the check-in app will automatically notify your friend or family member when you reach your destination, such as your home.

The iOS 17 update will also let you jump to the first message you don’t see in a conversation, and you can swipe right on any message to send a reply.

– As for search filters, you can quickly find the searched message by combining search filters to quickly narrow down the search.

See also  The end call button on "Apple" returns to its usual place

The iOS 17 update also includes a number of big improvements like contact stickers for phone calls, improvements to AirDrop, and a full-screen standby experience while your iPhone is charging.

The update will offer live voicemail scanning, and a new Name Drop feature will allow iPhone users to exchange contact information by trying each other’s phones.

iOS 17 brings improvements and new features to autocorrect and predictive text.

iOS 17 will let FaceTime users send video messages to people they call but don’t answer.

– To meet the needs of people with cognitive disabilities, there will be an assistive accessibility feature that focuses on key features in apps and experiences.

– The Personal Voice feature allows people with aphasia to set up a voice that sounds like their own and use it with the Live Talk feature to communicate in calls and chats.

– Point and Speak feature allows visually impaired people to interact with physical objects with text labels.

As for the reminder service, the grocery lists feature automatically categorizes items and organizes them into different categories to make the shopping process easier. The list will save your preferences when you change the way you order.

– People Photo Album now better recognizes your favorite people and your family’s favorite cats and dogs.

Some components are delayed in the new update
According to Apple, the iOS 17 update will not include all the features released, as some key components such as the Journal app will be delayed to later versions.

Journal application
Journal is a new app that allows iPhone users to capture their daily experiences and memories in a detailed manner.

See also  The Best Xbox Controllers for Cloud Gaming in 2023

The app will allow users to add text, photos, music and audio recordings to their journal entries, and the app will also offer personalized recommendations based on the user’s recent activity on the device.

Steps to Update iOS 17
– First, back up all your important files to avoid any mistake, so back up your precious photos, videos and other files before setting them up to iCloud or any other storage service.

– Phone must be charged before updating.

-You should have some free space to download the update which is usually around 10GB.

– Connect to Wi-Fi network before starting iOS 17 updates.

How to download iOS 17?
– First you need to go to Settings and then click on General.

– Then you need to click on software update and select new beta update item under automatic updates.

– The ability to install “iOS 17 Public Beta” will appear on the screen.

– Click Install to start the download.

Continue Reading


Copyright © 2023