Temperature is energy measured by an instrument called a “thermometer”, which comes from the Greek words “thermos” (hot) and metron (scale).
The intensity of heat, or the amount of thermal energy in an object or medium such as air, water, or the surface of the sun, can be measured using criteria selected by scientists.
There are 3 systems commonly used to measure temperature: Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin.
According to a 2019 report in the journal Nature Public Health Emergency Collection, the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates said that the human hand could be used to determine if a person had the flu before 400 BC. Precise instruments for measuring human body temperature have not been developed. Until the 16th and 17th centuries AD.
Fahrenheit … the first accurate thermometer
In 1714, he revealed “Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit– Dutch physicist, inventor and inventor of scientific instruments – Mercury-based thermometer. Mercury is a liquid metal that expands and contracts based on ambient temperature.
When Fahrenheit placed the mercury in a sealed tube, he saw the mercury rise and fall as it was exposed to different temperatures. According to The Royal Society of England, it is the world’s first practical and accurate thermometer.
Fahrenheit based his invention on the alcohol-based thermometer of the Danish scientist Ole Romer.
Romans described his temperature as the “zero mark” when salt water freezes and the boiling point of water as 60 degrees.
However, the Fahrenheit thermometer was very accurate. He used the same freezing and boiling reference points on the Roman scale, but he doubled the scale for an increase in accuracy. The four reference points on the Fahrenheit scale are zero at the freezing point of salt water, 30 at the freezing point of normal water, 90 at body temperature, and 240 at the boiling point of water.
Fahrenheit published a paper describing its size in a magazine.Philosophical translations(Philosophical Transactions) in 1724.
In the same year Fahrenheit was added to the Royal Society, the National Academy of Sciences of the United Kingdom and the Fellowship of the Royal Society, resulting in the Fahrenheit thermometer specialization being adopted in England, and later in the British Empire.
The Fahrenheit measurement system is sometimes referred to as part of the British imperial system because it traveled around the world with the British Empire at the time.
After Fahrenheit’s death in 1736, the Fahrenheit scale was slightly modified. The ideal freezing point and boiling point of salt-free normal water is set at 32 and 212 degrees Fahrenheit, respectively. Normal human body temperature is also set at 98.6. Temperatures are often expressed in Fahrenheit (℉) or simply with the number “F”.
Celsius..the highest scientific criterion
Olof Beckman, a solid-state physicist at the University of Uppsala in Sweden, wrote: “Anders Celsius is credited with being the first to publish accurate experiments that scientifically defined international temperature measurements.
Celsius is a Swedish astronomer and according to the American National High Magnetic Laboratory, proud to have discovered the connection between the aurora borealis and the Earth’s magnetic field, as well as a method of determining the brightness of stars.
In his explanation to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1742, Celsius proposed a scale based on two fixed points, zero water boiling point and 100 freezing point water. However, after the death of Celsius in 1744, the famous Swedish taxonomist Carl Linnaeus suggested changing the fixed points, zero to the freezing point of water and 100 boiling points, and the scale extended to add negative numbers.
Celsius originally called his scale “centigrade”, derived from the Latin “centi” and “grade”, meaning degree, because there are a hundred points between freezing and boiling water. However, in 1948, at the International Conference on Weights and Measures, the name was changed to “Celsius” in memory of Anders Celsius, according to the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Temperatures on the Celsius scale can be expressed in symbols (℃) or simply “C” in several degrees.
To compare Celsius with Fahrenheit, we find that the Celsius scale is between 100 degrees Celsius of boiling water and 180 degrees Fahrenheit. That is, one degree Celsius equals 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit. However, at -40 degrees, both scales have the same value; -40 degrees Celsius = -40 degrees Fahrenheit.
Kelvin … a complete move for scientists
In 1848, the British mathematician and scientist William Thompson – also known as Lord Kelvin – proposed an absolute temperature scale that was independent of the properties of objects such as ice or the human body.
He suggested that the range of possible temperatures in the universe was higher than Celsius and Fahrenheit suggested.
According to the US National Institute of Standards and Technology, the notion of an absolute minimum temperature is not new, but Kelvin was able to set a perfect number for it, with zero Kelvin -273.15 degrees Celsius.
Julia Churchlit, an expert in pressure and vacuum measurements at the National Institute of Science and Technology in the United States, says:Direct science(Direct science) Thermodynamics Temperature differs from temperature in terms of the freezing and melting points of liquids.
“Thermodynamic temperature is absolute, not related to fixed points. It describes the amount of kinetic energy in the particles that make up the mass of matter, which oscillates and vibrates at microscopic levels.” “As the temperature decreases, the particles move slowly until all motions stop at one point. This is absolute zero, which is the Kelvin scale standard.” Absolute zero occurs at −273.15 C or 459.67 F.
For Kelvin, the place where the thermometer should start was absolute zero, but for convenience he used scores and commas on the Celsius scale as the basis for his thermometer. By Kelvin, water freezes at 273.15 K or zero degrees Celsius and boils at 373.15 K or 100 degrees Celsius.
A kelvin is referred to as a unit, not a degree in degrees Celsius, and a unit equal to a degree in degrees Celsius.
Scientists mainly like to use the Kelvin scale. And in 2018, a research article in “Kelvin” magazine says that the Kelvin criterion has been redefined more precisely.Metrology(Metrologia), and its definition is now linked to the “Boltzmann constant”, which relates temperature with the kinetic energy in an object.
What is the best and most accurate criterion?
The best criteria for measuring temperature may vary depending on the conditions or the community in which you share information. Historically, Americans use the Fahrenheit scale in everyday life, including weather and cooking, but most countries use the Celsius scale, so it is best to use this scale when interacting internationally.
“Accuracy is not really an aspect of scale,” says Churchlegid. In contrast, the accuracy of the measurement depends on the increments given by the thermometer used and the technique of the person using it.
“Any number can be measured with arbitrary accuracy. But only Kelvin is based on physics, which means it is a very accurate scale.”
The Kelvin scale, based on the physical properties of any gas, can be measured accurately with the right equipment and mass constant anywhere in the universe. For this reason, scientists often prefer to use the Kelvin scale in their experiments.
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