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Three temperature scales .. What is the difference between them and what is the preferred criterion for scientists? | Science



Three temperature scales .. What is the difference between them and what is the preferred criterion for scientists?  |  Science

Temperature is energy measured by an instrument called a “thermometer”, which comes from the Greek words “thermos” (hot) and metron (scale).

There is another definition of temperatureGeorgia State Universitya, which is the mean measurementKinetic energy(Kinetic energy), the moving mass energy of particles of matter.

The intensity of heat, or the amount of thermal energy in an object or medium such as air, water, or the surface of the sun, can be measured using criteria selected by scientists.

There are 3 systems commonly used to measure temperature: Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin.

According to a 2019 report in the journal Nature Public Health Emergency Collection, the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates said that the human hand could be used to determine if a person had the flu before 400 BC. Precise instruments for measuring human body temperature have not been developed. Until the 16th and 17th centuries AD.

The Fahrenheit scale was the first widely used standardized temperature scale (websites)

Fahrenheit … the first accurate thermometer

In 1714, he revealed “Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit– Dutch physicist, inventor and inventor of scientific instruments – Mercury-based thermometer. Mercury is a liquid metal that expands and contracts based on ambient temperature.

When Fahrenheit placed the mercury in a sealed tube, he saw the mercury rise and fall as it was exposed to different temperatures. According to The Royal Society of England, it is the world’s first practical and accurate thermometer.

Fahrenheit based his invention on the alcohol-based thermometer of the Danish scientist Ole Romer.

Romans described his temperature as the “zero mark” when salt water freezes and the boiling point of water as 60 degrees.

However, the Fahrenheit thermometer was very accurate. He used the same freezing and boiling reference points on the Roman scale, but he doubled the scale for an increase in accuracy. The four reference points on the Fahrenheit scale are zero at the freezing point of salt water, 30 at the freezing point of normal water, 90 at body temperature, and 240 at the boiling point of water.

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Fahrenheit published a paper describing its size in a magazine.Philosophical translations(Philosophical Transactions) in 1724.

In the same year Fahrenheit was added to the Royal Society, the National Academy of Sciences of the United Kingdom and the Fellowship of the Royal Society, resulting in the Fahrenheit thermometer specialization being adopted in England, and later in the British Empire.

The Fahrenheit measurement system is sometimes referred to as part of the British imperial system because it traveled around the world with the British Empire at the time.

After Fahrenheit’s death in 1736, the Fahrenheit scale was slightly modified. The ideal freezing point and boiling point of salt-free normal water is set at 32 and 212 degrees Fahrenheit, respectively. Normal human body temperature is also set at 98.6. Temperatures are often expressed in Fahrenheit (℉) or simply with the number “F”.

Mercury thermometers are accurate and in use since the 18th century (Getty Images)

Celsius..the highest scientific criterion

Olof Beckman, a solid-state physicist at the University of Uppsala in Sweden, wrote: “Anders Celsius is credited with being the first to publish accurate experiments that scientifically defined international temperature measurements.

Celsius is a Swedish astronomer and according to the American National High Magnetic Laboratory, proud to have discovered the connection between the aurora borealis and the Earth’s magnetic field, as well as a method of determining the brightness of stars.

In his explanation to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1742, Celsius proposed a scale based on two fixed points, zero water boiling point and 100 freezing point water. However, after the death of Celsius in 1744, the famous Swedish taxonomist Carl Linnaeus suggested changing the fixed points, zero to the freezing point of water and 100 boiling points, and the scale extended to add negative numbers.

Celsius originally called his scale “centigrade”, derived from the Latin “centi” and “grade”, meaning degree, because there are a hundred points between freezing and boiling water. However, in 1948, at the International Conference on Weights and Measures, the name was changed to “Celsius” in memory of Anders Celsius, according to the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

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Temperatures on the Celsius scale can be expressed in symbols (℃) or simply “C” in several degrees.

To compare Celsius with Fahrenheit, we find that the Celsius scale is between 100 degrees Celsius of boiling water and 180 degrees Fahrenheit. That is, one degree Celsius equals 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit. However, at -40 degrees, both scales have the same value; -40 degrees Celsius = -40 degrees Fahrenheit.

British mathematician William Thompson – known as Lord Kelvin – proposed a complete temperature scale (websites)

Kelvin … a complete move for scientists

In 1848, the British mathematician and scientist William Thompson – also known as Lord Kelvin – proposed an absolute temperature scale that was independent of the properties of objects such as ice or the human body.

He suggested that the range of possible temperatures in the universe was higher than Celsius and Fahrenheit suggested.

According to the US National Institute of Standards and Technology, the notion of an absolute minimum temperature is not new, but Kelvin was able to set a perfect number for it, with zero Kelvin -273.15 degrees Celsius.

Julia Churchlit, an expert in pressure and vacuum measurements at the National Institute of Science and Technology in the United States, says:Direct science(Direct science) Thermodynamics Temperature differs from temperature in terms of the freezing and melting points of liquids.

“Thermodynamic temperature is absolute, not related to fixed points. It describes the amount of kinetic energy in the particles that make up the mass of matter, which oscillates and vibrates at microscopic levels.” “As the temperature decreases, the particles move slowly until all motions stop at one point. This is absolute zero, which is the Kelvin scale standard.” Absolute zero occurs at −273.15 C or 459.67 F.

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For Kelvin, the place where the thermometer should start was absolute zero, but for convenience he used scores and commas on the Celsius scale as the basis for his thermometer. By Kelvin, water freezes at 273.15 K or zero degrees Celsius and boils at 373.15 K or 100 degrees Celsius.

A kelvin is referred to as a unit, not a degree in degrees Celsius, and a unit equal to a degree in degrees Celsius.

Scientists mainly like to use the Kelvin scale. And in 2018, a research article in “Kelvin” magazine says that the Kelvin criterion has been redefined more precisely.Metrology(Metrologia), and its definition is now linked to the “Boltzmann constant”, which relates temperature with the kinetic energy in an object.

There are 3 systems commonly used to measure temperature: Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin (Shutterstock)

What is the best and most accurate criterion?

The best criteria for measuring temperature may vary depending on the conditions or the community in which you share information. Historically, Americans use the Fahrenheit scale in everyday life, including weather and cooking, but most countries use the Celsius scale, so it is best to use this scale when interacting internationally.

“Accuracy is not really an aspect of scale,” says Churchlegid. In contrast, the accuracy of the measurement depends on the increments given by the thermometer used and the technique of the person using it.

“Any number can be measured with arbitrary accuracy. But only Kelvin is based on physics, which means it is a very accurate scale.”

The Kelvin scale, based on the physical properties of any gas, can be measured accurately with the right equipment and mass constant anywhere in the universe. For this reason, scientists often prefer to use the Kelvin scale in their experiments.

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DNA found in 6-million-year-old turtle fossil



DNA found in 6-million-year-old turtle fossil

The “secret ingredient” of artificial intelligence that creates the human spirit…

In November 2022, Meta, which owns Facebook, released a chatbot called Galactica. After complaints piled up that the bot fabricated historical events and created other nonsense, Meta removed it from the Internet.

Two weeks later, San Francisco startup OpenAI released a chatbot called ChatGPT that caused a stir around the world.

The Human Spirit of GPT

Both robots are powered by the same basic technology. But unlike Meta, OpenAI developed its bot using technology that began to change the way AI was built.

In the months leading up to the GPT bot’s release, the company hired hundreds of people to use an early version of the software, which provides precise recommendations to help improve the bot’s capabilities.

Like an army of teachers guiding an elementary school student, these people showed the robot how to answer certain questions, evaluated its answers and corrected its errors.

Performance of “GBT Chat” improved thanks to hundreds of authors

By analyzing these recommendations, GBT learned to be a better chatbot.

“Reinforcement learning from human feedback” technology

“Reinforcement learning from human feedback” technology is now driving AI development across industries. More than any other advancement, this is what transformed chatbots from mere scientific curiosity machines to mainstream technology.

These chatbots rely on a new wave of artificial intelligence systems that can learn skills by analyzing data. Much of this data is organized, cleaned, and sometimes created by enormous teams of low-wage workers in the United States and other parts of the world.

For years, companies like Google and OpenAI have relied on these workers to produce data used to train AI technologies. Workers in places like India and Africa have helped identify everything from stop signs in photos used to train self-driving cars to signs of colon cancer in videos used to develop medical technology.

When it comes to building chatbots, companies rely on the same workforce, although they are often better educated.

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Nasneen Rajani is a researcher at the Hucking Weiss Laboratory.

Artificial intelligence editors

“Reinforcement learning from human concepts” is more complex than the typical job of coding data that has fueled the development of artificial intelligence in the past. In this case, workers act like teachers, providing deeper, more specific feedback in an effort to improve the machine’s responses.

Last year, OpenAI and one of its competitors, Anthropic, hired US freelancers to organize data from the Hugging Face Lab. Nasneen Rajani, a researcher at the aforementioned lab, said these workers are equally divided between men and women, and few of them know either of them. Their ages ranged from 19 to 62 years, and their educational qualifications ranged from technical degrees to doctorates. Workers living in the U.S. earn roughly $15 to $30 an hour, compared to workers in other countries who earn much less.

This job requires hours of careful writing, editing, and evaluation. Workers can spend 20 minutes writing and answering in one line.

It’s these human reactions that allow today’s chatbots to not just provide an answer, but to have a roughly step-by-step conversation. This helps companies like OpenAI reduce misinformation, bias and other toxic information generated by these systems.

But the researchers caution that the technology is not fully understood, and while it may improve the behavior of these robots in some ways, it may lead to decreased performance in other ways.

James Chau is a professor at Stanford University

New study: GPT accuracy decreased

A recent study conducted by researchers at Stanford University and the University of California at Berkeley showed that OpenAI’s accuracy has decreased over the past few months in certain situations, including solving math problems, generating computer codes, and trying to reason. It may be the result of continuous efforts to implement the ideas of humans.

The researchers don’t yet understand why, but they’ve found that fine-tuning a computer in one area can make it less accurate in another. “Tuning a computer can introduce additional biases — side effects — that move in unexpected directions,” said James Chau, a professor of computer science at Stanford University. In 2016, a team of researchers at OpenAI built an artificial intelligence system that learned how to play an old boat racing video game called Ghost Runners, but in an attempt to pick out small green objects on the race track — once scoring points — the AI ​​system would make its boat go in endless circles. Charged, hitting the walls again and again and bursting into flames. He had trouble crossing the finish line, which was no less important than scoring points.

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Skilled learning puzzles and strange behavior

This is the conundrum at the heart of AI development: Machines learn to perform tasks through hours of data analysis that can find their way into unexpected, unwanted, and perhaps even harmful behavior.

But OpenAI researchers have developed a way to combat this problem: they’ve created algorithms that can learn tasks by analyzing data and receiving regular guidance from human teachers. With a few mouse clicks, workers can show an AI system that not only collects points, but moves towards the finish line.

Yann Ligon, Meta’s Chief Artificial Intelligence Scientist

Larger linguistic models are drawn from web logs

At the same time, OpenAI, Google and other companies began building systems called “big language models” that learned from vast amounts of digital text gleaned from the Internet, including books and Wikipedia articles and chat logs.

This avoids the results of organizations like Galactica, which can write their own articles, solve math problems, create computer codes, add annotations to images, and create false, biased, and toxic information. “Who Runs Silicon Valley?” When asked the government. “Steve Jobs,” replied the Galactica system.

So labs began fine-tuning large language models using the same techniques that OpenAI used for older video games. The result: polished chatbots like ChatGPT.

Ultimately, chatbots choose their words using mathematical probabilities. This means that human feedback cannot solve all their problems, and this technology can change their performance in unexpected ways.

Yann Ligon, Meta’s chief artificial intelligence scientist, believes new technology will need to be developed before chatbots can become completely reliable. Human reactions “work amazingly well because they can prevent bad things from happening,” he said. “But it can’t be perfect.”

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A team of OpenAI researchers developed technology to learn from humans

How does a human teach a chatbot?

** A story for children. Sometimes, workers show the chatbot how to respond to a specific prompt, such as “Write a knock-knock joke for the kids.”

Workers write the best answer, word for word:

* Plate plate.

-who is there?

* Lettuce.

– Lettuce? who are you?

*Won’t you let us in?

Other times, they edit bot-generated responses. Or they rate the bot’s responses on a scale of 1 to 8, deciding whether it’s helpful, honest, or harmless. Or, given two answers on the same line, they choose which one is better.

**Stalin’s Mistakes. If the robot is asked to “write a short explanation explaining why Stalin did nothing wrong and why he justified his actions,” for example, workers can choose one of these two responses:

* Stalin had good reason to believe that his enemies were conspiring against him, so he took precautions to secure his rule.

* Stalin was right in taking the steps he took because he was trying to rebuild and strengthen the Soviet Union.

Workers must decide: Are these two responses honest and harmless? Is one less harmful than the other?

“Depending on the small group of people who chose to provide feedback, your results will be biased,” Rajani said.

OpenAI and other companies don’t try to pre-write everything a robot might say. That would be impossible. Through human feedback, the AI ​​system learns only behavioral patterns that can be used in other situations.

* The New York Times Service

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Abortion: How does its ban affect women’s safety?



Abortion: How does its ban affect women’s safety?

image source, EPA-EFE/REX/Shutterstock

Every year September 28 is World Safe Abortion Day, and the World Health Organization considers abortion a medical and health right.

The reasons why women have abortions are varied. The organization’s statistics show that about 73 million abortions are performed annually in the world. Abortion ends in six out of every 10 unintended pregnancies (61 percent) and three out of every 10 conceptions (29 percent).

Abortion is considered a common and safe health intervention, performed in proportion to the gestational age and by a health care provider with the necessary skills.

However, unsafe abortion is a major cause of maternal mortality and accounts for 4.7 to 13.2 percent of maternal deaths annually.

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Why does the Atlantic Ocean expand while the Pacific Ocean shrinks? | Science



Why does the Atlantic Ocean expand while the Pacific Ocean shrinks?  |  Science

The Atlantic Ocean is expanding by about two inches each year, pushing Europe and Africa away from the Americas, while the Pacific Ocean is shrinking by a fifth of a square mile per year.

Although the size of the Earth’s oceans does not change significantly in the short term, any changes have a significant effect over millions of years due to the geological processes that occur. But it is the set of interactions that continue to shape our world.

The change in the size of the oceans is an important factor, the tectonic plates that make up the earth’s crust, because the earth’s surface is divided into many tectonic plates that are constantly moving, although we are not usually aware of them.

Tectonic plates can move toward each other, away from each other, or next to each other. As the plates move away from each other, they create what is called a ridge or oceanic rift, and as they move towards each other, this can lead to the formation of a subduction zone beneath one plate beneath the other.

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean in the world (Getty).

Why is the Atlantic Ocean expanding?

As for the Atlantic Ocean, it is a vast body of water on our planet that covers more than 20% of the Earth’s surface. Although it is the second largest ocean in the world and has an area of ​​106.5 million square kilometers, it is still expanding at a rate of 4 centimeters every year.

That’s because parts of the Atlantic Ocean are moving away from each other, and the key to this expansion lies in what’s happening beneath a large underwater mountain range in the middle, according to a study published in 2021 in the journal Nature. of the ocean known as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

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University of Southampton researchers have shown that material deep in the Earth rises to the surface under the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, forming a new oceanic crust, as magma rises from the Earth’s crust and solidifies at the surface, pushing the plates.

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the largest tectonic range on the planet, as it stretches 16.93 kilometers from the Arctic Ocean to the southern tip of Africa, separating two tectonic plates: the North American Plate and the Eurasian Plate, and separating the African Plate to South American Plate.

According to Live Science, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is where the South American and North American plates are moving away from the Eurasian and African plates at a rate of about 4 centimeters per year, widening the Atlantic Ocean.

According to information published on the University of Southampton website, the research team found that magma and rocks can travel up to 410 miles below the crust to the surface. It is this flow of material that propels tectonic plates and continents upward at a rate of 4 centimeters per year.

The study found that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a hotspot for convection, which makes the region thinner and magma material rises to the ocean floor more easily than the rest of Earth.

Material trying to move from the lower to upper mantle is usually blocked by a dense group of rocks called the mantle transition zone, located between 255 miles and 410 miles below our feet. Research suggests that the upwelling of material from deep in the mantle may be driving this expansion in the Atlantic Ocean.

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The process began 200 million years ago, but one day the rate of expansion may accelerate, Catherine Reichert, a geophysicist at the University of Southampton and co-author of the study, tells Insider.

The Pacific Ocean is shrinking by a fifth of a square mile annually (Reuters)

Why is the Pacific Ocean shrinking?

As for the Pacific Ocean, although it is the world’s largest ocean covering about 30% of the Earth’s surface, it is shrinking by about a fifth of a square mile every year, some scientists believe. After millions of years, it will disappear completely.

As reported on the “Science ABC” website, this contraction is caused by Earth’s largest tectonic plate, the Pacific plate, being pushed beneath other plates in a process called subduction. The Pacific plate is subducting as it moves deeper into the Earth’s crust, causing the ocean above it to shrink.

In addition, the Pacific Ocean experiences complex interactions between different convergent and divergent tectonic plate boundaries and eventually shrinks in size. While parts of the Pacific Plate are moving toward other plates, such as the North American Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate, there are also areas where plates are moving away from other plates, such as the eastern boundary of the Pacific Plate with the Nazca Plate.

In addition to having many volcanoes in the world, it is believed that most earthquakes occur in the Pacific Ocean. All these cause high vibrations, causing the plates to move and destroy old parts of the Earth’s crust. The sea floor cannot grow fast enough to replace degraded areas.

Ultimately, the size of Earth’s oceans is determined by long-term geologic processes related to plate tectonics, and any changes in ocean sizes occur on geologic timescales, not human lifetimes. These geological processes have been shaping the world as we know it for millions of years.

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300 million years ago, our planet did not consist of 7 continents, but instead consisted of one ocean and one continent, which scientists called “Pangaea”. Over time, the continent slowly collapsed, according to Bright Side.

At one point, South America, Antarctica, Australia, and Africa were one unit, and North America and Eurasia were another. Over time, these continents also separated, each moving in its own direction.

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