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Cardiovascular diseases… treatment options and interventions

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide; It kills 17.9 million people every year. These diseases are a group of cardiovascular disorders including coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, rheumatic heart disease and other conditions.

Behavioral risk factors

According to the World Health Organization, more than 4 out of every 5 deaths from cardiovascular diseases are caused by heart attacks and strokes, and one-third of these deaths occur prematurely in people under the age of 70.

The most important behavioral risk factors for heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and harmful effects of alcohol. Individuals may have the effects of behavioral risk factors such as high blood pressure, high blood glucose, high blood cholesterol, overweight and obesity. These “moderate risk factors” can be measured in primary care settings and indicate an increased risk of heart attack, stroke, heart failure and other complications.

Dr. Zahid Khan – Dr. Khalid al-Habib

Cessation of tobacco use, reducing salt in the diet, eating more fruits and vegetables, engaging in regular physical activity and avoiding alcohol reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Health policies create the environment to make affordable and accessible health choices, essential to motivate people to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.

Identifying those at risk of heart disease and ensuring they receive appropriate treatment can prevent premature death. Access to non-communicable disease medicines and basic health technologies in all primary health centers is essential to ensure that those in need receive treatment and counselling.

World Heart Day

On World Heart Day 2023, the World Health Organization asked the world: “Use”, a call to first know hearts and then take care of them, as the organization firmly believes that knowledge of heart health in the world is low, and policies are insufficient or non-existent. It breaks down barriers and allows individuals to take care of their Aimed at empowering people to control welfare. Therefore, the organization launched a global call to raise awareness about heart health and accelerate action aimed at preventing, diagnosing and managing cardiovascular diseases. Promote various preventive measures and lifestyle changes to avoid cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure and other related conditions. On an average, more than 18 million people die of heart-related diseases every year. This is more than the number of people who die from HIV, malaria and cancer combined.

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Domestically, the Saudi Ministry of Health website indicated that cardiovascular diseases are the leading and first cause of death, and most of them can be prevented by controlling behavioral risk factors such as smoking, unhealthy diet, obesity and physical inactivity.

He pointed out that heart disease is often the result of an accumulation of factors such as age, lifestyle, diet and smoking. This can eventually lead to cardiac arrest. This has led to the need to develop programs that contribute to smoking cessation. Carry out campaigns promoting healthy lifestyles, good eating habits and exercise.

“Nabadad”…participates locally

Professor Dr. Khalid bin Fayez Al-Habib, Consultant in Adult Cardiovascular Diseases and Catheterization, King Fahd Center for Cardiovascular Diseases and Surgery at King Saud University College of Medicine, and Chairman of the Heart Disease Control Association (NABADAT), states that more than 30 percent of deaths in Saudi Arabia are cardiovascular. He spoke with “Your Health”, explaining what is caused by the disease. High cholesterol, smoking, high diabetes, high blood pressure and especially hereditary cholesterol are major risk factors for developing coronary heart disease. Because its elevation may be without any symptoms.

Therefore, Society Against Heart Disease (NABADAT) treats heart disease patients and creates social awareness for prevention of heart disease. The association also carries out health education and awareness for the community and individuals through latest means, using mobile vehicles equipped with latest medical equipment. Individuals are thoroughly screened and educated on healthy habits to maintain a healthy heart. Hence, “Nabadhat” Sangha commemorates the occasion of World Heart Day by providing treatment to helpless heart patients and creating social awareness to prevent heart diseases.

It is very important for patients to maintain a healthy lifestyle, and avoid bad eating habits and smoking completely, while exercising regularly and consistently. It has proven to be very effective in achieving very significant therapeutic benefits.

Cardiovascular diseases

“Heart disease” is a broad and broad term used to describe a group of diseases that affect the heart, which according to the World Heart Federation (WHF) includes the following various diseases:

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Cardiovascular diseases – Arrhythmia – Diseases of congenital heart defects – Cardiomyopathy – Heart diseases resulting from infection of heart membranes – Diseases of heart valves.

Symptoms of heart disease vary depending on the type of disease. For clarification, the following are more common examples:

• Cardiovascular diseases: A group of disorders affecting the heart and blood vessels, resulting in narrowing or blockage of blood vessels. This prevents blood from reaching the heart, brain or other parts of the body and getting enough blood. These disorders include:

– Coronary heart disease, diseases that affect the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle.

– Cerebrovascular diseases, diseases that affect the vessels that feed the brain.

– Peripheral arterial diseases, diseases affecting the blood vessels supplying the arms and legs.

Symptoms of heart disease are classified as: chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, numbness in legs and arms, and irregular heartbeat.

• Arrhythmia: Symptoms of: Rapid heart beat (chest pounding) – Slow heart beat – Chest pain – Shortness of breath – Dizziness – Fainting.

Coronary artery disease

Consultant and Head of Cardiac Surgery at Al Mana Hospitals in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom, Dr. Zahid Khan spoke to “Your Health”. He pointed out that coronary artery disease, also known as ischemic heart disease, is one of the most common heart diseases in older people, but it can occur at a young age when there are certain risk factors, such as family history. or diabetes, high blood pressure, or smoking. Coronary artery disease is more common in men and less common in women, with female hormones contributing to protection against the disease and preventing an increase in its incidence after menopause.

Dr. Khan added that the latest phenomenon is that we have recently seen an increase in cases of infection in younger patients due to high risk factors, lack of exercise and stress.

He emphasized that the increase in heart diseases in the modern age is related to lifestyle and bad habits.

Modern therapeutic interventions

Recent advances in the world of cardiology include percutaneous intervention using drug-eluting “stents” and minimally invasive heart surgery when only one artery is affected, says Dr Khan. In particular, the left anterior descending artery is injured and cannot be stented.

More than 18 million people die each year from heart-related diseases

Treatment plan is determined after coronary angiography; According to international guidelines and scoring systems, the best treatment options are discussed and evaluated in a meeting involving the entire cardiac team, which includes a cardiologist and a cardiac surgeon.

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Treatment options include:

• Bracing: May be sufficient most of the time.

• Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Sometimes using a stent, Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) method, in case of multi-vessel disease requiring coronary artery bypass grafting, sometimes as a bridge to surgery after opening the causative artery. works. Aims to improve blood flow to the heart.

“We recommend CABG in patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease, most left main trunk disease, and some bifurcation lesions, especially if the patient is diabetic,” says Dr. Con.

• Minimal heart surgery: This is one of the latest developments in heart surgery and is performed with or without the help of robots. Minimally invasive surgery is primarily aimed at repairing and replacing valves, and coronary bypass surgery remains open-heart surgery unless it involves only the anterior descending artery (LAD); The left internal mammary artery (LIMA) is transposed to the left anterior descending artery.

What happens to the patient after stent placement? Is the disease likely to come back?

Dr. Khan replies: “Yes, due to the aggressive nature of the disease, the patient’s non-adherence to medication and uncontrolled risk factors, there is a chance of recurrence in a stented artery. Usually, in this case, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) may be required.

He said there is also a chance of re-stenosis due to many of the factors discussed above.

How can coronary artery disease be prevented?

To avoid coronary artery disease, Dr Khan advises the following:

• Follow a healthy lifestyle, eat a balanced diet, avoid smoking and exercise.

• If there are risk factors, the patient should talk to the doctor to discuss the best treatment options, especially in other diseases like diabetes, cholesterol and blood pressure.

* Community Medical Consultant

Nadia Barnett
Nadia Barnett
"Award-winning beer geek. Extreme coffeeaholic. Introvert. Avid travel specialist. Hipster-friendly communicator."

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