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Vitamin B12… Learn about its normal status, deficiency symptoms and risks



Vitamin B12… Learn about its normal status, deficiency symptoms and risks

Cardiovascular diseases… treatment options and interventions

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide; It kills 17.9 million people every year. These diseases are a group of cardiovascular disorders including coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, rheumatic heart disease and other conditions.

Behavioral risk factors

According to the World Health Organization, more than 4 out of every 5 deaths from cardiovascular diseases are caused by heart attacks and strokes, and one-third of these deaths occur prematurely in people under the age of 70.

The most important behavioral risk factors for heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and harmful effects of alcohol. Individuals may have the effects of behavioral risk factors such as high blood pressure, high blood glucose, high blood cholesterol, overweight and obesity. These “moderate risk factors” can be measured in primary care settings and indicate an increased risk of heart attack, stroke, heart failure and other complications.

Dr. Zahid Khan – Dr. Khalid al-Habib

Cessation of tobacco use, reducing salt in the diet, eating more fruits and vegetables, engaging in regular physical activity and avoiding alcohol reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Health policies create the environment to make affordable and accessible health choices, essential to motivate people to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.

Identifying those at risk of heart disease and ensuring they receive appropriate treatment can prevent premature death. Access to non-communicable disease medicines and basic health technologies in all primary health centers is essential to ensure that those in need receive treatment and counselling.

World Heart Day

On World Heart Day 2023, the World Health Organization asked the world: “Use”, a call to first know hearts and then take care of them, as the organization firmly believes that knowledge of heart health in the world is low, and policies are insufficient or non-existent. It breaks down barriers and allows individuals to take care of their Aimed at empowering people to control welfare. Therefore, the organization launched a global call to raise awareness about heart health and accelerate action aimed at preventing, diagnosing and managing cardiovascular diseases. Promote various preventive measures and lifestyle changes to avoid cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure and other related conditions. On an average, more than 18 million people die of heart-related diseases every year. This is more than the number of people who die from HIV, malaria and cancer combined.

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Domestically, the Saudi Ministry of Health website indicated that cardiovascular diseases are the leading and first cause of death, and most of them can be prevented by controlling behavioral risk factors such as smoking, unhealthy diet, obesity and physical inactivity.

He pointed out that heart disease is often the result of an accumulation of factors such as age, lifestyle, diet and smoking. This can eventually lead to cardiac arrest. This has led to the need to develop programs that contribute to smoking cessation. Carry out campaigns promoting healthy lifestyles, good eating habits and exercise.

“Nabadad”…participates locally

Professor Dr. Khalid bin Fayez Al-Habib, Consultant in Adult Cardiovascular Diseases and Catheterization, King Fahd Center for Cardiovascular Diseases and Surgery at King Saud University College of Medicine, and Chairman of the Heart Disease Control Association (NABADAT), states that more than 30 percent of deaths in Saudi Arabia are cardiovascular. He spoke with “Your Health”, explaining what is caused by the disease. High cholesterol, smoking, high diabetes, high blood pressure and especially hereditary cholesterol are major risk factors for developing coronary heart disease. Because its elevation may be without any symptoms.

Therefore, Society Against Heart Disease (NABADAT) treats heart disease patients and creates social awareness for prevention of heart disease. The association also carries out health education and awareness for the community and individuals through latest means, using mobile vehicles equipped with latest medical equipment. Individuals are thoroughly screened and educated on healthy habits to maintain a healthy heart. Hence, “Nabadhat” Sangha commemorates the occasion of World Heart Day by providing treatment to helpless heart patients and creating social awareness to prevent heart diseases.

It is very important for patients to maintain a healthy lifestyle, and avoid bad eating habits and smoking completely, while exercising regularly and consistently. It has proven to be very effective in achieving very significant therapeutic benefits.

Cardiovascular diseases

“Heart disease” is a broad and broad term used to describe a group of diseases that affect the heart, which according to the World Heart Federation (WHF) includes the following various diseases:

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Cardiovascular diseases – Arrhythmia – Diseases of congenital heart defects – Cardiomyopathy – Heart diseases resulting from infection of heart membranes – Diseases of heart valves.

Symptoms of heart disease vary depending on the type of disease. For clarification, the following are more common examples:

• Cardiovascular diseases: A group of disorders affecting the heart and blood vessels, resulting in narrowing or blockage of blood vessels. This prevents blood from reaching the heart, brain or other parts of the body and getting enough blood. These disorders include:

– Coronary heart disease, diseases that affect the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle.

– Cerebrovascular diseases, diseases that affect the vessels that feed the brain.

– Peripheral arterial diseases, diseases affecting the blood vessels supplying the arms and legs.

Symptoms of heart disease are classified as: chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, numbness in legs and arms, and irregular heartbeat.

• Arrhythmia: Symptoms of: Rapid heart beat (chest pounding) – Slow heart beat – Chest pain – Shortness of breath – Dizziness – Fainting.

Coronary artery disease

Consultant and Head of Cardiac Surgery at Al Mana Hospitals in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom, Dr. Zahid Khan spoke to “Your Health”. He pointed out that coronary artery disease, also known as ischemic heart disease, is one of the most common heart diseases in older people, but it can occur at a young age when there are certain risk factors, such as family history. or diabetes, high blood pressure, or smoking. Coronary artery disease is more common in men and less common in women, with female hormones contributing to protection against the disease and preventing an increase in its incidence after menopause.

Dr. Khan added that the latest phenomenon is that we have recently seen an increase in cases of infection in younger patients due to high risk factors, lack of exercise and stress.

He emphasized that the increase in heart diseases in the modern age is related to lifestyle and bad habits.

Modern therapeutic interventions

Recent advances in the world of cardiology include percutaneous intervention using drug-eluting “stents” and minimally invasive heart surgery when only one artery is affected, says Dr Khan. In particular, the left anterior descending artery is injured and cannot be stented.

More than 18 million people die each year from heart-related diseases

Treatment plan is determined after coronary angiography; According to international guidelines and scoring systems, the best treatment options are discussed and evaluated in a meeting involving the entire cardiac team, which includes a cardiologist and a cardiac surgeon.

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Treatment options include:

• Bracing: May be sufficient most of the time.

• Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Sometimes using a stent, Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) method, in case of multi-vessel disease requiring coronary artery bypass grafting, sometimes as a bridge to surgery after opening the causative artery. works. Aims to improve blood flow to the heart.

“We recommend CABG in patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease, most left main trunk disease, and some bifurcation lesions, especially if the patient is diabetic,” says Dr. Con.

• Minimal heart surgery: This is one of the latest developments in heart surgery and is performed with or without the help of robots. Minimally invasive surgery is primarily aimed at repairing and replacing valves, and coronary bypass surgery remains open-heart surgery unless it involves only the anterior descending artery (LAD); The left internal mammary artery (LIMA) is transposed to the left anterior descending artery.

What happens to the patient after stent placement? Is the disease likely to come back?

Dr. Khan replies: “Yes, due to the aggressive nature of the disease, the patient’s non-adherence to medication and uncontrolled risk factors, there is a chance of recurrence in a stented artery. Usually, in this case, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) may be required.

He said there is also a chance of re-stenosis due to many of the factors discussed above.

How can coronary artery disease be prevented?

To avoid coronary artery disease, Dr Khan advises the following:

• Follow a healthy lifestyle, eat a balanced diet, avoid smoking and exercise.

• If there are risk factors, the patient should talk to the doctor to discuss the best treatment options, especially in other diseases like diabetes, cholesterol and blood pressure.

* Community Medical Consultant

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Climate scientists demand powers to develop “political agendas”.



Climate scientists demand powers to develop “political agendas”.

Climate experts have called for a “comprehensive overhaul” of the structure and mandate of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, including allowing scientists to interfere in countries’ political plans.Guardian“British.

Five of the lead authors of the IPCC reports told the Guardian, “Scientists must be empowered by the 195 signatories of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to set policy plans and oversee their implementation.”

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an international body affiliated with the United Nations consisting of 3,000 climate scientists and other experts.

It is also considered an influential scientific organization in the field of studying global warming and its effects.

“As climate change worsens, it is becoming increasingly difficult for policy to be relevant without binding guidance,” said IPCC Vice-President Sonia Senaviratne.

He added that scientists “can argue for the reduction and phase-out of fossil fuels.”

Of the “contradiction between science and work on the ground,” he said: “It’s hard for us scientists to understand because science doesn’t seem to make any sense.”

The function of the IPCC is to issue assessment reports of the latest climate science that are over 3,000 pages long every 6 to 7 years. A short “summary for policy makers” of these lengthy assessments has been compiled.

COP28 Agreement: Three Options on Fossil Fuels

A second draft of the final agreement at the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP28) showed negotiators are considering calling for an “orderly and equitable” phase-out of fossil fuels, according to Reuters.

“The decisive, independent and guiding roles of the IPCC are unclear,” said Geert-Jan Nabors, lead author of three IPCC reports.

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He continued: “With the decline of those roles, states wield more influence.”

The problem for teachers, he said, is that they “can’t be policy-oriented, so they can’t make strong statements about what needs to be done.”

Nabors questioned the value of consistently producing evaluation reports. And less time trying to stay below 2 degrees Celsius.”

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change recommends cutting carbon emissions by 43 percent by 2030 compared to 2019, with hopes of meeting the goal of limiting warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

Glenn Peters, lead author of the emissions scenarios in the same body’s sixth assessment report, said scientists “should be allowed to identify country-by-country causes of increased greenhouse gas emissions, such as coal use in China.” mitigation pathways elsewhere.”

According to the Guardian, a report by IPCC scientists that blamed China and India for more than 50 percent of the net increase in global emissions between 2010 and 2019 was omitted from a recent briefing for policymakers, the negotiating documents show.

“The IPCC needs to move towards solving the problem,” Peters said. “If that doesn’t happen in the seventh assessment report, I think the IPCC will lose its relevance.”

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Pain in their stomachs… After symptoms of Shigella bacteria spread among the invading soldiers



Pain in their stomachs… After symptoms of Shigella bacteria spread among the invading soldiers

By Fatima Yasser

Friday, December 8, 2023 at 11:00 am

Several media outlets have reported that Israeli occupation soldiers in Palestine have been infected with deadly bacteria, according to Dr. Osama Fikri, gastroenterology and liver consultant at the Egyptian Liver and Clinical Nutrition Institute, in a special report. Everything you need to know about “Youm7”. Bacteria Shigella.

Shigella bacteria causes infection

A gastroenterology and liver consultant explained that Shigella bacteria is similar to a common type of bacteria called E. coli, which causes infection in the intestines and colon and is spread through faecal-contaminated food, i.e. unsanitarily prepared food. Due to lack of hygiene.

Symptoms of Shigella bacteria

Dr. Osama added that there are many symptoms associated with Shigella bacteria.

– High body temperature.

– Severe abdominal pain.

– Diarrhea is sometimes bloody.

– Cracking and pain in the body.

– Headache.

– As a result of diarrhoea, the body loses nutrients, which manifests as dizziness and collapse.

He pointed out that there are four types of Shigella bacteria and there is a dangerous type that causes diarrhoea, which can endanger a person with violent diarrhea with blood as a result of the release of intestinal toxins. A person’s life.

Groups most susceptible to Shigella bacterial infection

Dr. Osama affirmed that the groups most vulnerable to Shigella bacterial infection are children, the elderly, and those with chronic and immunological diseases.

Treatment of Shigella bacteria

A gastroenterology and liver consultant explained that Shigella bacteria should be treated for remission because they deprive the body of many vital nutrients. The treatment plan includes giving the patient antibiotics and paying attention to the quality of the food consumed. , it should be healthy, and cover a lot of fluids. The body is not wasted due to diarrhea.

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Finally, he pointed out that the treatment protocol requires a maximum of 10 days, but serious cases can lead to many health complications, such as kidney problems and the breakdown of platelets.

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5 Signs of Sleep Apnea… What Are They?



5 Signs of Sleep Apnea… What Are They?

Seasonal Influenza… Prevention and Control by Vaccination

Climate change is a major threat to human health; It affects all aspects of natural and human systems, including the physical environment, social and economic conditions, and the performance of health systems. As such, it is a threat multiplier that will undermine and reverse decades of health progress. As climates change, more frequent and extreme weather and climate events are seen, including storms, extreme cold, extreme heat, floods and droughts.

These weather and climate hazards affect health directly and indirectly, increasing deaths, non-communicable diseases, emergence and spread of communicable diseases and health emergencies. Cases of “severe seasonal flu”.

Research by the World Health Organization (WHO) shows that 3.6 billion people already live in areas most vulnerable to climate change, and from 2030 to 2050, climate change is expected to cause 250,000 additional deaths each year. By 2030, direct costs to health are estimated to be between 2 and 4 billion US dollars per year. Areas without strong health infrastructure – most of which are in developing countries – are less able to cope without help. From… for preparedness and response.

Seasonal fever

Seasonal influenza (flu) is an acute respiratory infection caused by influenza viruses. It is common throughout the world and is easily spread between people when coughing or sneezing. Most people recover from it without treatment, and vaccination is the best way to prevent the disease. People of all ages can be affected by the disease, but certain groups are at greater risk than others, including:

People at risk for serious illness or complications from the flu: pregnant women, children under 5 years of age, the elderly, and those with chronic medical conditions (such as chronic heart, lung, kidney, metabolic, neurodevelopmental, liver, or blood) and individuals with immunosuppressive conditions (HIV V, chemotherapy or steroids or malignancy).

– Health care workers are at high risk of infection with influenza virus due to high exposure to disease and contact with patients and increased transmission of disease among particularly at-risk individuals. Vaccination can protect healthcare workers and the people around them.

New season recommendations

Dr. Muhammad al-Abd al-Ali, a spokesman for the Saudi Ministry of Health, said that 80 percent of those hospitalized in intensive care due to seasonal flu since the beginning of the season had not received the vaccine.

Reports from the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) indicate that the new influenza season (2023-2024) will be two different things:

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The first: updating the composition of influenza vaccines for the 2023-2024 season with new recommendations, compared to the composition of the US flu vaccine for the 2022-2023 season. Updated influenza vaccines based on eggs or recombinant cells.

Second: People with egg allergies can get any vaccine (egg-based or egg-based) that is appropriate for their age and health. Previously, people with severe egg allergy (those with any symptoms other than allergy as a result of egg exposure) were referred for vaccination in inpatient or outpatient clinical settings. Beginning in the 2023-2024 season, additional protective measures for influenza vaccination are no longer recommended for people with egg allergy, beyond what was recommended for receiving any vaccine, regardless of the severity of a previous reaction to eggs. All vaccines should be given in settings where allergic reactions can be recognized and treated quickly.

Viral forms

There are 4 types of influenza virus: A, B, C and D. Influenza A and B viruses circulate and cause seasonal epidemics.

• Influenza A viruses are also classified into subtypes according to groups of proteins found on the surface of the virus. A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) subtypes of influenza viruses are currently circulating in humans. The name of the A(H1N1) strain is also written in the following way: “A(H1N1)pdm09”, because it caused the pandemic in 2009 and replaced an earlier virus called A(H1N1) that circulated before 2009. Only influenza type A viruses are known to cause infection.

• Influenza B viruses are not classified into subtypes, but can be divided into strains. Type B influenza viruses belong to the B/Yamagata lineage or the B/Victoria lineage.

• Influenza type C virus is rarely detected, usually causes mild infections, and is therefore not of public health importance.

• Influenza T viruses primarily infect livestock and are not known to infect or cause disease in humans.


Flu symptoms usually begin two days after receiving the infection from someone infected with the virus. Symptoms include:

– Severe fever.

– Cough (usually dry), which may be severe and last two weeks or more.

– Headache, muscle and joint pain, and feeling very bad.

– Sore throat and runny nose.

Influenza can cause serious illness or death; Especially in those at high risk.

Influenza can exacerbate symptoms of other chronic illnesses. In severe cases, the fever can lead to pneumonia and sepsis. People with other medical problems or severe symptoms should seek medical treatment.

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Hospitalizations and deaths due to influenza occur mainly among high-risk groups.

In industrialized countries, flu-related deaths are highest among people 65 years of age or older.

The effects of seasonal flu epidemics on developing countries are not fully known, but research estimates that developing countries account for 99 percent of deaths among children under the age of five with flu-related lower respiratory tract infections.

In terms of transmission, seasonal flu spreads easily and quickly in crowded places, including schools and nursing homes. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, droplets containing viruses (infectious droplets) become airborne and can infect people in close proximity to the infected person. The virus is also spread through hands contaminated with influenza viruses.

To prevent spread, people should cover their mouth and nose with a tissue when they cough and wash their hands regularly. In temperate regions, seasonal influenza epidemics occur mainly in winter, while in tropical regions epidemics can occur throughout the year, resulting in less frequent outbreaks.

The period between acquiring the infection and the onset of illness is called the incubation period, which can last from two days but can range from one to four days.


Most cases of human influenza are diagnosed clinically. However, during periods of low influenza activity or outside epidemics, other respiratory viruses (such as SARS-CoV-2, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, and adenoviruses) can produce influenza-like illness. making clinical differentiation between influenza and other pathogens difficult.

To determine the final diagnosis, it is necessary to collect appropriate samples from the respiratory system and perform laboratory diagnostic tests. Proper collection, storage, and transport of respiratory specimens is an essential first step in the laboratory diagnosis of influenza virus infections. Laboratory confirmation is usually performed using direct antigen detection, virus isolation, or detection of influenza RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing.

Rapid diagnostic tests are used in clinical settings, but are less sensitive than reverse transcription-PCR-based methods, and their reliability largely depends on the circumstances in which they are used.


Most people recover from the flu on their own. People with severe symptoms or other medical conditions should seek medical treatment. People with mild symptoms should do the following:

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– Staying at home to rest; Avoid hurting others.

– Drink enough fluids.

– Treating other symptoms such as fever.

– Seek medical attention when symptoms appear.

– People at high risk, or those with severe symptoms, should be treated with antiviral drugs as soon as possible. WHO’s Global Influenza Surveillance and Response Network (GISRS) monitors viral resistance among circulating influenza viruses to provide timely evidence for national policies on antiviral use.


First – The Advisory Committee on Influenza Immunization (ACIP) recommends vaccination for the following groups for the 2023-2024 season: pregnant women, children 6 months to 5 years of age, people over 65 years of age, and people with chronic medical conditions; and health workers.

Many inactivated influenza vaccines and recombinant influenza vaccines are available in injectable form. Live attenuated influenza vaccines are available as a nasal spray. The vaccine may be less effective in the elderly; But it can reduce illness, and reduce the chance of complications and death. Vaccination is especially important for people who are at risk of developing flu complications and for their caregivers.

Second: Other methods of prevention:

– Wash and dry hands frequently.

– Cover your mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing.

– Dispose of tissue properly.

– Stay home when sick.

– Avoid close contact with sick people.

– Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth.

Third – The World Health Organization, in collaboration with the Global Influenza Program, the organization’s Global Surveillance and Response Network and other partners, continues to monitor influenza viruses and their activities globally, and recommends twice seasonal flu vaccines. A year in the middle and middle of the year for influenza seasons. It provides guidance on the mix of vaccines to be used in tropical and subtropical countries, supports decisions regarding the timing of vaccination campaigns and supports Member States in prevention and development of control strategies.

The organization works to strengthen influenza response capabilities at the national, regional and global levels, including disease diagnosis, antiviral susceptibility monitoring, disease surveillance and outbreak response. It works to increase vaccination coverage among high-risk groups and to support research and development into new treatments and other countermeasures.

* Community Medical Consultant

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