- author, Carolyn Wilk
- stock, Navabel magazine
Small jumping spiders hang by their webs at night inside a laboratory box. Occasionally, their legs buckle and their spines quiver. Their retinas, visible through their transparent exoskeleton, move back and forth.
“What’s happening to these spiders looks very similar to what’s called rapid eye movement sleep,” says Dr Daniela Rössler, a behavioral ecologist at the University of Konstanz in Germany. During this phase of sleep, the sleeping animal’s eyes move unexpectedly.
For humans, rapid eye movement sleep is the stage in which they dream most of their dreams, especially dreams that contain details that resemble reality. This leads us to a perplexing question: If spiders experience REM sleep during sleep, does that mean dreams unfold in their poppy seed-sized brains?
Roesler and his colleagues conducted a 2022 study on spinning web spiders, where they placed surveillance cameras over 34 spiders and found that they went through REM-like sleep stages every 17 minutes. Nocturnal eye movement behavior was restricted to these bouts, when jumping spiders were moving, stretching, adjusting their silk threads, or grooming themselves with one of their legs.
Although the spiders were sitting during the period that leads to REM-like seizures, the team was still unable to prove that they were actually sleeping. But if it turns out to be happening during his sleep, Rössler says, dreams become a distinct possibility if REM becomes one. She adds that it’s easy for her to imagine that jumping spiders, animals that rely heavily on their sense of sight, might benefit from dreams as a way to absorb information they receive during the day.
Roesler is not the only researcher trying to answer these questions regarding animals far down the evolutionary chain from humans. Other scientists have found evidence that a wide range of animals, including spiders, lizards and zebrafish, undergo REM sleep. It made researchers wonder if dreams, previously thought to be unique to humans, are more common than they thought.
REM sleep is characterized by several characteristics in addition to REM: temporary paralysis of skeletal muscles, frequent twitching of body parts, and increased brain activity, respiratory rates, and heart rate. This type of sleep was first observed in newborns in 1953, and has also been observed in other animals such as cats, mice, horses, sheep, opossums and armadillos.
Brain activity during this stage of sleep has unique characteristics, at least in humans. In states where rapid eye movements do not occur, known as quiet sleep states, brain activity is synchronized. Neurons fire their signals simultaneously and then stop, especially in the cerebral cortex, known as slow waves. On the other hand, during REM sleep, bursts of electrical activity occur in the brain that occur during wakefulness.
Even in mammals, REM stages are not uniform. Hedgehogs, a marsupial mammal, show some features of simultaneous REM sleep and restful sleep. Studies on whales and dolphins indicate that they may not go into REM sleep, while birds go through those stages, which are characterized by beak twitching and muscle relaxation.
Researchers are beginning to find similar sleep stages in many animal species.
For example, in 2012, researchers observed a sleep-like state in cuttlefish and behavior similar to REM sleep: from time to time, the animals’ eyes would move rapidly, their arms would twitch and their body color would change. During a fellowship at the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory in Massachusetts, behavioral biologist Teresa Iglesias studied the phenomenon and photographed six squid over several hours.
All six fish behaved in a manner similar to what occurs during eye movement sleep every 30 minutes. These creatures emit signals to hide and attract attention, both of which are part of their behavior when awake. Because the brains of cephalopods directly control changing skin patterns and colors, this “suggests that brain activity is somewhat out of control” during sleep, says Iglesias, who now works at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology in Japan.
Researchers later observed a similar condition in octopuses. If the octopus and squid dream, “it undermines our belief that humans are very unique creatures,” says Iglesias.
The researchers also monitored a phase similar to rapid eye movement by recording signals emitted by electrodes in the bearded dragons’ brains. They also indicated that zebrafish have at least two sleep stages based on their brain fingerprints. In one of these two states, brain activity occurs synchronously in mammals during restful sleep. In another phase, the fish showed neural activity similar to that occurring during wakefulness and REM sleep (but the fish did not show rapid eye movements).
By observing multiple stages of sleep in humans’ most distant relative from an evolutionary perspective, the researchers indicated that different types of sleep began hundreds of millions of years ago. It is now known that flies move between two or more stages of sleep. For nematodes, they go through a phase of dormancy.
Researchers are studying the possibility that animals dream during REM sleep, because during that stage, organisms exhibit behaviors similar to their waking behavior—such as changing skin patterns in cuttlefish or vibrating spider webs. Gianina Ankorian, a sleep scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Biological Intelligence and Göttingen School of Medicine in Munich, and her colleagues observed that the pigeons’ pupils constricted during the rapid eye movement phase, similar to what happens during these birds’ playful behavior. . This raises the question of whether the pigeons are dreaming or reliving the experience while awake, Ankorian says.
Rapid eye movement sleep has been linked to repetitive play situations in some animals. For example, when researchers examined the electrical activity in the brains of sleeping rats that ran through a maze while awake, they observed neurons firing signals that helped them locate locations. They also detected the activity of neurons related to eye movement. Both of these things suggest that the rats may have had a dream-like experience during which they scanned their surroundings, Ungorian said.
Taking this evidence into account, he adds, we can assume that animals can dream. “But if we look at these reasons individually, it is clear that none of them are sufficient.” Replay-related brain activity in mice doesn’t just occur during REM sleep, the researcher says. This happens during planning or daydreaming. The relationship between REM sleep and dreaming is not firmly established: Humans also dream during restful sleep, and when drugs were used to block REM sleep, this did not prevent participants from having long, strange dreams.
Ultimately, Ungorian adds, people know they’re dreaming because they can talk about their dreams, “but animals can’t, and that’s the biggest problem when we try to verify this in a precise scientific way.”
There is still controversy about the benefits of REM sleep. “No one knows for sure the function of sleep — REM or restful sleep,” says Professor Paul Shaw, a professor of neurology at Washington University in St. Louis. One of the most widely accepted theories is that REM sleep helps the brain form and reorganize memories, while other theories suggest that this stage of sleep helps the brain and body’s motor systems develop, and maintains the electrical circuits necessary for waking activities. Worse during sleep.
Iglesias says that if species distantly related to humans in the animal kingdom undergo REM sleep, their role, whatever it is, may be more important.
But not all scientists believe what the researchers observed is rapid eye movement sleep. Jerome Siegel, a neuroscientist who studies sleep at the University of California, Los Angeles, says it’s possible the researchers were simply fulfilling a hypothesis that explains that all animals go through two sleep stages and interpret one of those stages as REM sleep. He adds that some animals, such as spiders, may not sleep: “Animals may do things that seem similar, but the physiology is not necessarily similar.”
Researchers continue to search for clues to this mystery. Roessler’s team is trying to develop dyes that can help them take pictures of spiders’ brains, perhaps showing activity in areas similar to those we use when we dream. Iglesias and others implanted electrodes into the brains of cephalopods and recorded electrical activity during two sleep states — one active and one quiet — and whose neural signatures were similar to those seen in mammals. Dr. Ungurian trained pigeons to sleep in an MRI machine and found that many areas of the human brain that light up during rapid eye movement sleep are also active in birds.
A philosopher at San Francisco State University and author of Animals Dream: The Hidden World of Animal Emotions, Dr. David M. Pena-Guzman says that when squid, spiders and other creatures dream, it grows. Important questions about what exactly is happening to her. He adds that since dreams occur from the perspective of the person who sees them, dreaming animals must have the ability to see the world from their perspective.
Guzmán says that dreaming indicates that they have the ability to imagine: “We like to believe that only humans can disconnect from the world for a while… But we have to think a little more about other animals. .”
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For women… a device that tracks your fertility through sweat
Back pain is one of the most common medical problems in the world in general, and the most common in the United States. Anyone can suffer from back pain and almost everyone will suffer from back pain at some point in their life.
Back pain is the most common physical pain of all. Every day, about two percent of people are disabled by back pain, which makes them unable to perform daily tasks. In the United States alone, 80 to 90 percent of people suffer from back pain at some point in their lives.
Back pain can start mild and cause some discomfort, or it can become so bad that it interferes with normal life and can make you unable to go to work.
There are many possible causes of back pain, and it is wise to see a healthcare provider to find the cause and seek treatment instead of guessing and self-diagnosing. It may have common causes such as muscle cramps or an underlying condition such as kidney stones, a herniated disc or inflammation of the lining of the back.In women, the uterus.
Treatment varies depending on the cause and symptoms, and there are many factors involved. However, there are steps you can take to improve your health and reduce your chances of developing chronic or long-term back pain.
According to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), back pain is the second most common reason for visits to health care providers (after the common cold).
Types of back pain
According to the Cleveland Clinic, back pain is classified by medical professionals in several ways. Depending on the location of the pain, you may describe back pain as: pain in the left, middle, upper, middle or lower back, or right side. Different types of pain may be identified by the health care provider, such as mild, moderate, or severe pain. The pain may be like a sharp stab or a specific ache.
Back pain can also be classified by how long it lasts. Back pain can last for a day, a few weeks, months, or a lifetime. It can be either an acute attack (in the form of a sudden and short attack, often associated with an injury) or chronic/persistent pain, meaning pain lasting between 3 and 6 months.
Injury risk factors
Who is at risk for back pain? There are several factors that increase the risk of developing back pain, and they may include:
* Fitness level: Back pain is more common in people who are not physically fit. For example, weak back and abdominal muscles may not support the spine properly (core strength). Back pain can be exacerbated by prolonged inactivity (excessive) exercise.
* Weight gain: A diet high in calories and fat, combined with an inactive lifestyle, can lead to obesity, which can put more strain on the back.
*Work-related risk factors: Jobs that involve lifting, pushing, pulling or twisting heavy objects can lead to back injury. A desk job can also play a role, especially if you have poor posture or sit in an uncomfortable chair all day.
* Stress condition: If you suffer from poor sleep, chronic depression or anxiety, back pain can be frequent and severe.
* Genetics: Genetics play a role in some disorders that cause back pain.
* Age: The older you get, the more likely you are to suffer from back pain, especially after the age of 45. A person is at high risk if:
– He doesn’t exercise.
– You already have arthritis or a type of cancer.
– He is overweight.
– Lifts heavy objects using the back instead of the legs.
– He suffers from anxiety or depression.
– Smoking or using other tobacco products.
Local and diffuse pain
What causes back pain? Back pain can be localized, such as pain in the spine, muscles, and other tissues in the back, or diffuse, such as pain caused by a problem in an organ that radiates or feels like it is in the back. It contains Examples of both include:
* Localized back pain: The cause may be in the spine, for example:
Herniated disc or herniated nucleus pulposus (disc) – Degenerative spondylolisthesis – Intervertebral disc degeneration – Radiculopathy – Arthritis – Sacroiliac joint dysfunction – Intervertebral disc degeneration – Spinal stenosis – Spondylolisthesis – Muscle stiffness – Muscle stiffness – Muscle spasm / Muscle stiffness.
* Common back pain, for example: aneurysms of blood vessels, abdominal aortic aneurysms – appendicitis – cancer (very rare) – fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndrome – infections (very rare) – cholecystitis – kidney infections and kidney stones – liver problems – inflammation of the pancreas – pelvis Inflammatory diseases (sexually transmitted diseases) – Perforated stomach ulcers – Urinary tract infections.
* In women, common causes of back pain are: endometriosis – pregnancy – uterine fibroids.
* Among those assigned male at birth (AMAB), presenting with back pain may be due to testicular injury or torsion.
A herniated disc is one of the causes of back pain. What are its causes? And its symptoms? And treatment methods? Can it be avoided or prevented?
Professor Mohamed Melhem Arouz, senior consultant in neurosurgery, spine surgery and minimally invasive surgery and senior consultant in chronic pain management, spoke to “Your Health” and he initially provided a simple overview of the anatomy of the spine. Of the 33 vertebrae: 7 cervical vertebrae. That is, between each vertebra and the other, there is a cartilage called “disc”.
The function of this “disc” is to act as a cushion between the vertebrae, protecting the spine by absorbing shocks from it. Cartilage, or the disc, consists of a gelatinous substance surrounded by an outer fibrous belt that prevents the disc from moving or slipping out of place.
Causes of disc pain:
*Unspecified causes; This results in pain where:
– Lack of movement and weakness of trunk muscles.
– Muscle tension as a result of incorrect and excessive continuous loads.
– Long and long hours of sitting without movement (sitting in front of the computer), driving for long periods of time.
– Overweight and obesity.
– Hard physical labor on the one hand.
– Stress and stress such as stress in work and studies.
– Changes in pain perception and genetic predisposition.
– Family and financial problems, constant anxiety and self-doubt.
* Back pain due to identifiable physical causes, for example:
– Acute herniated disc.
– Vertebral fractures for various reasons, including: accidents – osteoporosis – metastases and tumors – infections – spinal canal stenosis (central, peripheral, lateral, central and peripheral).
– Inflammatory diseases of the spine.
– Inflammatory rheumatic diseases (Pekterov’s syndrome).
Nucleus pulposus herniation occurs at all ages and peaks between 40 and 50. 70 percent male and 30 percent female. waist; About 90 percent, cervical vertebrae about 10 percent, and thoracic vertebrae about one percent.
Symptoms and diagnosis
* Symptoms of Herniated Disc:
– Pain in back and lower back.
– Pain extending to knee and leg or forearm and hand with tingling, numbness, loss of sensation in leg or arm, or paralysis-like sensation. In advanced cases, there are problems with urination and excretion.
* How is a herniated disc diagnosed?
Professor Muhammad Melhem Aras emphasizes the importance of arriving early and on time for the final diagnosis, which leads to a good outcome and gives the patient a greater chance to avoid further harm, and the diagnosis depends on:
– Medical history of the injured person and his family.
– Medical diagnosis.
– General examinations and blood tests.
– Radiography (computed tomography – magnetic resonance imaging).
– Nerve planning.
After diagnosing the disease, a treatment plan is drawn up, specifying that each patient needs his own treatment plan consistent with his symptoms and clinical and radiological status.
The fourth and fifth steps are usually the last resort when the patient is in critical condition due to paralysis, urinary incontinence, defecation problems, foot drop etc.
Herniated disc treatment
Treatment options for a herniated disc are divided into 5 categories:
* Conservative treatments, including: physical therapy – ultrasound therapy – electrotherapy – heat and cryotherapy – magnetic field therapy – swimming.
* Drug treatments, including: first-class analgesics (ibuprofen, Ticlac) – second-class analgesics with moderate morphine (tilidine, tramadol) – third-class analgesics with high concentrations of morphine.
* Minimal treatments without surgery:
– Injection of nerves and nerve roots directed through the CT system.
– Epidural directed injection (medullary membranes).
– Catheter directed to the affected disc.
– Endoscopic catheter directed to disc.
– Laser guided therapy (rays).
– Plasma guided therapy (PRP).
– Radiofrequency guided therapy (radio-frequency).
– Stem cell targeted therapy (under trial).
* Various micro surgeries.
* Final treatments for postoperative pain (final rate).
When should back pain be admitted to the emergency department?
When it happens:
– Sudden and severe pain.
– Pain with nausea, fever or vomiting and lack of bowel or urinary control.
– The pain is so severe that it interferes with daily activities.
The Cleveland Clinic offers the following advice: Back pain can be very frustrating and interfere with everyday life. But remember that there are many treatment options available to treat back pain and return to normal daily activities.
See your healthcare providers to discuss your options. They are here to help you.
* Community Medical Consultant
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DNA found in 6-million-year-old turtle fossil
The “secret ingredient” of artificial intelligence that creates the human spirit…
In November 2022, Meta, which owns Facebook, released a chatbot called Galactica. After complaints piled up that the bot fabricated historical events and created other nonsense, Meta removed it from the Internet.
Two weeks later, San Francisco startup OpenAI released a chatbot called ChatGPT that caused a stir around the world.
The Human Spirit of GPT
Both robots are powered by the same basic technology. But unlike Meta, OpenAI developed its bot using technology that began to change the way AI was built.
In the months leading up to the GPT bot’s release, the company hired hundreds of people to use an early version of the software, which provides precise recommendations to help improve the bot’s capabilities.
Like an army of teachers guiding an elementary school student, these people showed the robot how to answer certain questions, evaluated its answers and corrected its errors.
By analyzing these recommendations, GBT learned to be a better chatbot.
“Reinforcement learning from human feedback” technology
“Reinforcement learning from human feedback” technology is now driving AI development across industries. More than any other advancement, this is what transformed chatbots from mere scientific curiosity machines to mainstream technology.
These chatbots rely on a new wave of artificial intelligence systems that can learn skills by analyzing data. Much of this data is organized, cleaned, and sometimes created by enormous teams of low-wage workers in the United States and other parts of the world.
For years, companies like Google and OpenAI have relied on these workers to produce data used to train AI technologies. Workers in places like India and Africa have helped identify everything from stop signs in photos used to train self-driving cars to signs of colon cancer in videos used to develop medical technology.
When it comes to building chatbots, companies rely on the same workforce, although they are often better educated.
Artificial intelligence editors
“Reinforcement learning from human concepts” is more complex than the typical job of coding data that has fueled the development of artificial intelligence in the past. In this case, workers act like teachers, providing deeper, more specific feedback in an effort to improve the machine’s responses.
Last year, OpenAI and one of its competitors, Anthropic, hired US freelancers to organize data from the Hugging Face Lab. Nasneen Rajani, a researcher at the aforementioned lab, said these workers are equally divided between men and women, and few of them know either of them. Their ages ranged from 19 to 62 years, and their educational qualifications ranged from technical degrees to doctorates. Workers living in the U.S. earn roughly $15 to $30 an hour, compared to workers in other countries who earn much less.
This job requires hours of careful writing, editing, and evaluation. Workers can spend 20 minutes writing and answering in one line.
It’s these human reactions that allow today’s chatbots to not just provide an answer, but to have a roughly step-by-step conversation. This helps companies like OpenAI reduce misinformation, bias and other toxic information generated by these systems.
But the researchers caution that the technology is not fully understood, and while it may improve the behavior of these robots in some ways, it may lead to decreased performance in other ways.
New study: GPT accuracy decreased
A recent study conducted by researchers at Stanford University and the University of California at Berkeley showed that OpenAI’s accuracy has decreased over the past few months in certain situations, including solving math problems, generating computer codes, and trying to reason. It may be the result of continuous efforts to implement the ideas of humans.
The researchers don’t yet understand why, but they’ve found that fine-tuning a computer in one area can make it less accurate in another. “Tuning a computer can introduce additional biases — side effects — that move in unexpected directions,” said James Chau, a professor of computer science at Stanford University. In 2016, a team of researchers at OpenAI built an artificial intelligence system that learned how to play an old boat racing video game called Ghost Runners, but in an attempt to pick out small green objects on the race track — once scoring points — the AI system would make its boat go in endless circles. Charged, hitting the walls again and again and bursting into flames. He had trouble crossing the finish line, which was no less important than scoring points.
Skilled learning puzzles and strange behavior
This is the conundrum at the heart of AI development: Machines learn to perform tasks through hours of data analysis that can find their way into unexpected, unwanted, and perhaps even harmful behavior.
But OpenAI researchers have developed a way to combat this problem: they’ve created algorithms that can learn tasks by analyzing data and receiving regular guidance from human teachers. With a few mouse clicks, workers can show an AI system that not only collects points, but moves towards the finish line.
Larger linguistic models are drawn from web logs
At the same time, OpenAI, Google and other companies began building systems called “big language models” that learned from vast amounts of digital text gleaned from the Internet, including books and Wikipedia articles and chat logs.
This avoids the results of organizations like Galactica, which can write their own articles, solve math problems, create computer codes, add annotations to images, and create false, biased, and toxic information. “Who Runs Silicon Valley?” When asked the government. “Steve Jobs,” replied the Galactica system.
So labs began fine-tuning large language models using the same techniques that OpenAI used for older video games. The result: polished chatbots like ChatGPT.
Ultimately, chatbots choose their words using mathematical probabilities. This means that human feedback cannot solve all their problems, and this technology can change their performance in unexpected ways.
Yann Ligon, Meta’s chief artificial intelligence scientist, believes new technology will need to be developed before chatbots can become completely reliable. Human reactions “work amazingly well because they can prevent bad things from happening,” he said. “But it can’t be perfect.”
How does a human teach a chatbot?
** A story for children. Sometimes, workers show the chatbot how to respond to a specific prompt, such as “Write a knock-knock joke for the kids.”
Workers write the best answer, word for word:
* Plate plate.
-who is there?
– Lettuce? who are you?
*Won’t you let us in?
Other times, they edit bot-generated responses. Or they rate the bot’s responses on a scale of 1 to 8, deciding whether it’s helpful, honest, or harmless. Or, given two answers on the same line, they choose which one is better.
**Stalin’s Mistakes. If the robot is asked to “write a short explanation explaining why Stalin did nothing wrong and why he justified his actions,” for example, workers can choose one of these two responses:
* Stalin had good reason to believe that his enemies were conspiring against him, so he took precautions to secure his rule.
* Stalin was right in taking the steps he took because he was trying to rebuild and strengthen the Soviet Union.
Workers must decide: Are these two responses honest and harmless? Is one less harmful than the other?
“Depending on the small group of people who chose to provide feedback, your results will be biased,” Rajani said.
OpenAI and other companies don’t try to pre-write everything a robot might say. That would be impossible. Through human feedback, the AI system learns only behavioral patterns that can be used in other situations.
* The New York Times Service
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Abortion: How does its ban affect women’s safety?
Every year September 28 is World Safe Abortion Day, and the World Health Organization considers abortion a medical and health right.
The reasons why women have abortions are varied. The organization’s statistics show that about 73 million abortions are performed annually in the world. Abortion ends in six out of every 10 unintended pregnancies (61 percent) and three out of every 10 conceptions (29 percent).
Abortion is considered a common and safe health intervention, performed in proportion to the gestational age and by a health care provider with the necessary skills.
However, unsafe abortion is a major cause of maternal mortality and accounts for 4.7 to 13.2 percent of maternal deaths annually.
It can cause physical and psychological problems for women. This creates significant financial burdens on women and local communities.
In addition, many countries impose legal penalties, including prison terms, on women who perform abortions, and many impose fines on doctors or caregivers who provide assistance.
The World Health Organization estimates that between 2010 and 2014, about 45 percent of abortions were performed unsafely, and 97 percent of them occurred in developing countries.
The inability to provide good health care and safe abortion is considered a violation of human rights, including the right to life, physical and mental health, to benefit from scientific progress, and to make a free and responsible decision in numbers. Children, the spacing and timing of births, and shall not be subjected to torture, cruel treatment or punishment or other inhuman or degrading treatment.
What is safe abortion?
“This simple health intervention can be delivered safely in two ways,” points out Dr. Bella Ganatra, from the World Health Organization’s Department of Reproductive Health and Research. Nurses or midwives at the care center.” Local health care, or by using medicine sold in tablet form.
He points out that these drugs “have been studied for decades and we have strong evidence for their safety.”
Ganatra assures that these drugs rarely cause severe side effects and they do not cause long-term effects such as side effects like infertility. Therefore, these pills can be administered in several ways, “at the convenience of a health care provider, or through an online doctor visit, or if the woman is early in her pregnancy, ie less than 12 weeks, she can take the pills and follow the instructions at home.
No woman or girl can visit a doctor or specialist medical care provider unless the laws of her country of residence allow it, forcing her to have an unsafe abortion, which could cost her life.
What is an unsafe abortion?
Ganatra says that unsafe abortion is not technically different from safe abortion, but rather based on unsafe conditions, such as when performed by an inadequately trained person or when counterfeit or substandard pills are used.
He adds: “We are very concerned about the problem of counterfeit and substandard medicines and the lack of access to accurate information or back-up support when needed in the event of any side effects.”
He points out that the biggest danger is that people are forced to use “all kinds of drugs, chemicals, compounds and herbal remedies, whether orally, by injection or intravenously.” “At best, some of them are ineffective, but at the same time they delay your access to effective health care. At worst, they are very dangerous, even fatal,” he adds.
Visiting a medical clinic to perform an illegal abortion using designated medical equipment can also result in death.
The physical health risks of unsafe abortion in this way include incomplete abortion, i.e., failure to remove or expel all pregnancy tissue from the uterus, severe bleeding, infection, or uterine perforation, resulting from use. A sharp instrument for abortion. Risks include damage to the reproductive system and internal organs from instruments used in unsafe abortion procedures.
Does banning abortion promote unsafe conditions?
Doctors and health care providers agree that states that ban abortions are not actually preventing abortions or reducing decision rates, but rather putting women and girls in unsafe conditions and putting their lives at risk.
Doctors Without Borders Obstetrician Dr. Rasha al-Quri, in an earlier interview with BBC News Arabia, pointed out that these laws “restrict abortion among a group, not all of them” because “people who have money and can travel… “Other countries that can afford private health care can have abortions.”
She adds: “Poor women who cannot travel due to social or family reasons are affected by these laws.”
For her part, Ganatra points out that restricting women’s access to safe abortion does not actually address the underlying reasons that drive them to have an abortion.
She confirms that there are ways to solve this problem and the solutions are known. “We need to ensure women and girls have access to safe abortion when they need it,” she says. But, she adds, it should be “within a comprehensive range of services to help prevent unplanned pregnancy and sexuality education, in addition to family planning and contraception.”
“When we provide comprehensive sexual and reproductive health care, when we put women and girls at the heart of decision-making, and we care about their health, only then can we eliminate the problem of unsafe abortion,” she points out.
According to a study published in the Journal of the US National Library of Medicine published in 1985, abortion is not considered a phenomenon related to modern times, but has been practiced since ancient times, but its legality and availability are always questioned.
Over the past decades, abortion has become a hot political issue in some countries, with deep-seated beliefs about women’s fundamental right to make important decisions about their physical and reproductive health.
The study points out that laws outright banning the practice of abortion are a relatively recent development.
For example, the Church did not criminalize abortion until 1588, during the reign of Pope Sixtus V, who made all forms of abortion a crime, punishable by excommunication. However, this decision has since changed several times.
Abortion has become a major political issue in US presidential elections, especially after the US Supreme Court overturned its 1973 decision on abortion rights in June 2022.
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