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How can artificial intelligence act like a “metal detector” to find new drugs?



How can artificial intelligence act like a “metal detector” to find new drugs?

Artificial intelligence will make the stages of new drug discovery faster, better and more productive

Artificial intelligence has the potential to transform how humans learn, work and interact with each other in every aspect of life, including health.
Although the use of AI in drug discovery is still in its infancy, it has the potential to revolutionize the way new drugs are developed.

AI can help speed up the drug discovery process, reduce the cost of drug development, and improve the safety and efficacy of new drugs.

In 2019, scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States did something unusual in modern medicine when they discovered a new antibiotic called holicin.

In May this year, another group discovered a drug compound called apoucin, which shows beneficial activity as an antibiotic. What distinguishes these two compounds is not only that they can be used against two of the most dangerous antibiotic-resistant bacteria known, but also how they were identified.

In both cases, the researchers used an artificial intelligence model to sift through millions of candidate compounds to determine which would work best against each “superbug,” according to a report published in the journal. “The Economist”.

“Needle in a Haystack”

He pointed out to the paper that the artificial intelligence model looked at the chemical structure of a few thousand known antibiotics and how successful they were (or weren’t) at fighting bacteria in the lab.

During this exercise, the model was able to detect interactions between chemical structures and success in killing bacteria.

Once the AI ​​released its shortlist, scientists tested it in the lab and identified their antibiotics.

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If discovering new drugs is like looking for a “needle in a haystack,” says Regina Barzilai, a computer scientist at MIT who helped discover apocycin and hallucin, AI acts like a “metal detector.”

It takes years of clinical trials for drug candidates to move from the lab to the clinic for use against diseases, but there’s no doubt that artificial intelligence has sped up the initial trial-and-error part of the process.

A long and complicated task

Traditionally, discovering and developing new drugs to treat diseases is a long and complex task, but artificial intelligence is helping to speed up this process.

To develop drugs, researchers need to understand the biological and genetic differences that cause diseases.

By applying AI to anonymized medical data sets, such as electronic health records or lab results, scientists can fill in missing information about the causes of these diseases.

AI is helping researchers to develop more targeted drugs, and progressing towards precision medicine.

How Artificial Intelligence Works "Metals detection" Discover new drugs?

For example, in oncology, AI algorithms can be applied to digital images of biopsies to help detect subtle differences between tumors that indicate the presence of genetic mutations in a subset of patients.

Researchers can use these findings to tailor drugs to this subgroup of patients.

The same algorithms that help identify genetic mutations can be used to identify these patients in the real world to facilitate clinical trial recruitment and clinical decision making.

“Drug discovery is a very challenging process, with only a small percentage of drug compounds moving into clinical trials and an even smaller percentage becoming approved drugs,” says Chris Moy, Scientific Director of Oncology, Data Science, Digital Health and R&D at Johnson & Johnson. Johnson.

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He adds: “AI will not only help us identify the right targets for complex diseases, but also help us design appropriate molecules to treat and improve diseases while minimizing the impact of side effects.”

Together, he noted, these AI applications will help researchers put promising drug candidates into clinical development, with the ultimate goal of improving the likelihood of successfully bringing a drug to market and quickly getting new treatments to patients who need them most.

Many applications

In the field of new drug discovery, scientists are using artificial intelligence to make research faster, better, and more productive throughout the entire process:

Screening large libraries of drug compounds that are most effective against a specific disease.

Designing new drugs that are more targeted and less toxic than existing drugs.

Predicting side effects of drugs before they are tested in humans.

Individualize drug therapy for each patient.

As AI technology continues to evolve, we can expect more innovative and impactful applications of AI in research.

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Finding the genetic causes of a rare cancer affecting the kidney



Finding the genetic causes of a rare cancer affecting the kidney

An international team led by researchers at the British Wellcome Sanger Institute has revealed a new drug target that could act as an alternative treatment for kidney cancer if doctors don’t recommend surgery. According to the results of a study published in the journal Nature Communications (Monday), this rare cancerous form of kidney tumor is called Renin tumor, and its complete genetic code has been understood for the first time.

Reninoma is one of the rarest cancers in humans, with only about 100 cases reported worldwide. Although it can usually be treated with surgery, it can cause severe high blood pressure and develop into malignant tumors that can spread.

There are still no medical treatments for kidney tumors, as treatment management only involves surgery. Before the results of the latest study came out, it was not known what genetic error caused these types of tumors.

Reninoma is one of the rarest cancerous tumors in humans (Public Domain).

According to the study’s co-principal investigator, Dr. Sam Bagadi, Wellcome Senior Research Fellow at the Wellcome Sanger Institute: “The significance of our results is that we have succeeded in discovering the essence of this type of tumor. Based on the fact that it is so rare, there have been no previous studies on it.

He added to Asharq Al-Awsat: “Not only have we been able to understand the genetic code of a kidney tumor, but we have also shown that drugs can counteract what triggers it, and this may be important for patients whose tumors cannot be removed. through surgery.”

Researchers have identified a specific error in the genetic code of a known cancer gene called NOTCH1, which is behind the development of this rare cancer.

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“This is the first time we have identified the causes of kidney tumors, and we believe our work will continue to pave the way for new treatments,” said lead study author Taryn Trescher at the Wellcome Sanger Institute.

The team has already studied two cancer samples, one from a young adult and the other from a child, using advanced genetic techniques. Their findings suggest that existing drugs that actually target this gene could be used as a potential solution for treating kidney tumors in patients for whom surgery is not a viable option.

Dr Tansina Chowdhury, lead researcher on the study at Great Ormond Street Hospital in the UK, explained: “Rare forms of kidney cancer known as renal tumors do not respond to traditional anti-cancer treatments. “Currently the only known treatment is surgery.” She added: “There is a specific, well-known gene that drives this rare cancer. Our study shows that the studied gene has “If we use drugs that are already known to affect this gene, we can deal with it without the need for invasive medical technology like surgery.”

Here Bahjati said: “Rare cancers are a huge challenge for research and analysis. Patients with other types of tumors may not benefit from them. “But here is a powerful example of cutting-edge science that is changing our understanding of an extremely rare type of tumor: a discovery that could have immediate clinical benefits for patients.” He added: “We will continue to study these extremely rare tumors to understand their genetic code, which we hope will reveal more new therapeutic approaches.”

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Climate change: Saudi Arabia warns against rush to abandon traditional fuels – Financial Times



Climate change: Saudi Arabia warns against rush to abandon traditional fuels – Financial Times

image source, Good pictures

We begin our tour of British newspapers with Amy Williams in New York and Miles McCormick in Calgary at the Financial Times on what they describe as deep tensions and divisions over the oil and gas industry’s role in combating climate change. Recent events in New York, US and Calgary, Canada this week cast doubt on the likelihood of an agreement at the upcoming United Nations COP28 conference.

According to the article, when world leaders and senior officials meet in New York in ten weeks ahead of the United Nations’ COP28 climate summit, there is a deep divide between those who support and those who urge the expansion of fossil fuel use. Stopping all forms of growth and expansion is critical to achieving stability in the world.

In December, the UN The authors quoted Dan Jorgensen, Denmark’s minister for development cooperation and global climate policy, who is leading discussions on new climate targets that could be agreed at the climate change conference COP28, as saying: “Countries agree that we must move. Move forward on this issue.” “But the bad news is that we’re far from reaching an agreement. We need to address the larger problem of burning fossil fuels.”

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What are the most common symptoms of breast cancer in men?



What are the most common symptoms of breast cancer in men?

Breast cancer is a disease that affects women, especially with a high number of infections, but in fact it affects men as well, and many believe that it leads to death among them.

she explained NHS The NHS in England says that 85 men die each year in Britain from breast cancer, and that the malignancy affects around 400 men annually.

The charity Breast Cancer Now also reports that “at least one person is diagnosed with the disease every day”.

According to the website “Mayo ClinicMedically, male breast cancer is “a rare cancer that begins with the growth of cells in the breast tissue of men.”

Breast cancer cells disrupt the immune system

Australian researchers announced Monday that breast cancer cells have powerfully destroyed the body’s immune system, allowing the disease to invade patients’ bones.

“Breast cancer in men usually affects older people, but it can occur at any age,” he pointed out.

Those diagnosed with “male breast cancer” at an early stage have a good chance of recovery.

What are the symptoms?

The symptoms of this disease are as follows:

A painless lump or thickening of breast tissue and changes in the skin of the breast, such as sagging, wrinkling, redness or peeling.
Changes in the nipples, such as redness or peeling, or one of the nipples turning inward.

The causes of these malignant tumors are still unclear, but doctors define “male breast cancer” as occurring when “some breast cells divide faster than healthy cells.”

Accumulated cells form a tumor, which can spread (metastasize) to nearby tissues, lymph nodes, or other parts of the body.

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According to the website “Web MedicineThe disease can be diagnosed through a clinical examination, which is done by feeling the chest area of ​​the person in search of any tumors or changes in the chest tissue, and the doctor evaluates the size, structure and depth of the tumors present.

It can be diagnosed with radiographic imaging such as X-rays or ultrasound to create clear images of the breast tissue.

Only a biopsy is used to “confirm” a diagnosis of breast cancer in men. This is done by taking a sample of the tumor tissue and examining it to confirm whether the tumor is cancerous or benign.

Treatment usually involves surgery to remove as much of the visible tumor as possible, along with some of the surrounding healthy tissue.

Other treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be recommended depending on the condition.

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