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What is the amount of water in the Earth’s atmosphere?



ما هي كمية الماء في الغلاف الجوي للأرض؟

Earth is called the “blue planet” for its abundant water supply. Unlike other bodies in the solar system, liquid water is abundant on Earth, allowing millions of organisms to thrive.

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According to the US Geological Survey (USGS), about 71% of the Earth’s surface is covered by water, and 96.5% of the planet’s water supply is found in the oceans. But water does not just stay at the bottom, it is part of the water cycle (also called the hydraulic cycle), it moves in the atmosphere.

Simply put, billions of gallons of water, mostly in the form of steam, are now in the sky, and if it all fell at once, it would cause some major problems for millions of people.

According to the US Geological Survey, the total volume of water on Earth is estimated at 332.5 million cubic miles (1.4 billion cubic kilometers). More specifically, one cubic mile of water contains approximately 1.1 trillion gallons, which is enough to fill 1.66 million Olympic-sized swimming pools.

As a result of the hydraulic cycle, Earth’s water does not stay in one place for long, evaporating, evaporating, forming clouds and then returning to the surface in the form of rain. Then the cycle starts again.

Encyclopedia Britannica states that evaporated water stays in the atmosphere for up to 10 days. This means that the atmosphere is actually immersed in steam.

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Frederick Fabry, director of the Department of the Environment and associate professor at the Stewart Marshall Radar Laboratory, said: “On average, about 30 mm of rain falls at any point on the earth’s in the form of vapor. Atmospheric and Marine Sciences at McGill University in Canada. This represents about 25 kilograms of water per square meter, mostly in the form of vapor. “

Given that the Earth’s area is about 197 million square miles (510 million square kilometers), Fabri explained that there is about 37.5 million gallons of water in the atmosphere. He said that if all these masses collapsed at once, it would raise the size of the world’s ocean by about 3.8 cm.

While it is not possible for all of this steam to fall at once, such a dramatic rise in sea level would have catastrophic consequences.

According to the Climate Change Post, if global sea level rises by only 5 cm, there are already low-lying cities in India such as Mumbai and Kochi, Abidjan on the Ivory Coast and Jakarta in Indonesia with a population of over 28 million. Is in danger. For coastal flooding, it will be “significantly affected”.

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Even the deadliest time in the history of the earth

According to a 2017 study published in scientific reports, if sea levels rise by 5 to 10 cm, the frequency of floods will double in various regions, “especially in the tropics”.

If all the water in the atmosphere were spinning spontaneously in some way, it would not fall evenly around the world because some parts of the earth are wetter than others.

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Fabri noted: “The amount of water in the atmosphere is controlled by the equilibrium flow in and out of the atmosphere. The flow to the atmosphere is controlled by evaporation from the surface, and it depends on whether there is water on the surface, as well as the amount of energy that water needs to evaporate from the surface, and that heat comes from the surface.” Evaporation is high in the warm oceans, while landforms in the Arctic are small. “

The average amount of water in the atmosphere varies depending on the season and location, but in general, “tropical oceans and humid tropics have more vapor above them, and they move according to the seasons, with Arctic terrain or high mountains at least” to retain water. The best, “said Fabri.

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Other influencing factors include geography and terrain, i.e. the sloping terrain, which affects how quickly the air moves through the atmosphere as it cools. As a result, the mountains receive more than the share of precipitation, Fabry said. According to the US Geological Survey, this explains why it rained so much in Seattle, a town near the Cascade Mountains.

It is noteworthy that climate change may affect the amount of vapor in the atmosphere in the coming decades. “As the temperature rises, evaporation from the surface increases, as does the amount of water in the atmosphere,” Fabri said.

As a result, the acceleration of global warming can be visualized. Water vapor is the most effective greenhouse gas, and when it is high in the atmosphere it contributes to global warming and enhances the greenhouse effect.

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Source: Direct Science

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If you can’t resist spicy food…foods that moisten your tongue and soothe your digestive system



If you can’t resist spicy food…foods that moisten your tongue and soothe your digestive system

By Anas al-Banna

Sunday, December 3, 2023 at 10:00 p.m

Some people like to eat a lot of spicy food and may not be able to resist it, although this may cause some problems with the taste buds of the tongue or the digestive system, and according to the website “My Health only“, can cause Chili pepper For various digestive problems like vomiting, indigestion, irritable bowel syndrome and constipation, there are ways to improve spice tolerance..

Cool ingredients from your diet to soothe chili problems

Eating cooling foods like yogurt, cucumber, mint and coconut are great ways to combat the heat of burning foods as they soothe the digestive system.

Stay hydrated

Spicy foods can cause dehydration, so be sure to stay hydrated, especially when eating spicy foods, drinking water and herbs to help balance and maintain balance.

Yogurt with hot dishes

Drinking curd after eating spicy food can help in relieving the heat caused by spicy food. Curd is a classic remedy, it contains probiotics and has a soothing effect on the digestive system.

Herbs like chamomile

Herbs like cilantro can help cut down on spicy flavors. Additionally, drinking herbal teas like chamomile or peppermint after meals can also help ease digestion after a spicy meal.

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Can earthquakes be predicted using artificial intelligence models?



Can earthquakes be predicted using artificial intelligence models?

The painful earthquakes in Turkey, Morocco and Afghanistan in 2023, which caused severe losses beyond thousands of deaths and injuries and severe damage to infrastructure, confirm the importance of constructing earthquake-resistant buildings. Many technological solutions are now available to increase the resistance of buildings to earthquakes, which may protect lives or mitigate their psychological and economic effects and consequences. Many international universities are also racing to develop technologies that can help predict earthquakes using artificial intelligence.

Major universities are developing new technologies to help predict earthquakes with artificial intelligence (Shutterstock).

Earthquake resistant designs

Earthquake-resistant design includes a range of technologies and methods to improve a building’s ability to withstand seismic forces. In an exclusive interview with Asharq Al-Awsat, architect Muhammad Obaid, founder and CEO of Emcon Architecture and Engineering Consultancy, explains the basic techniques and methods currently used in earthquake-resistant design. “Basic isolation systems range from shear walls, moment-resisting frames, anchorage systems, tuned mass dampers, viscous dampers, reinforced concrete, steel framing, flexible materials, energy dissipation devices, seismic retrofitting, design of non-structural components,” Obaid said. says. , and soil optimization, seismic hazard assessment, computer modeling and simulation, and building codes and standards.” He adds, “Engineers and architects combine these techniques and methods to create detailed earthquake-resistant designs designed to meet the specific needs and conditions of the building and its location, and the choice of techniques depends on factors such as the type of building, location, budget, and level of seismic risk.” “

Architect Mohammad Obaid is the Founder and CEO of “EMKON” Architectural and Engineering Consulting Firm (EMKON).

Restoration of old buildings

Retrofitting existing buildings with sustainable, earthquake-resistant technologies is certainly possible, but it requires careful planning, engineering expertise and compliance with local regulations. Architect Muhammad Obaid, speaking to Asharq Al-Awsat, believes that “existing buildings can be modernized with sustainable and earthquake-resistant technologies, although the process varies in complexity depending on the specific technologies and the structural and architectural characteristics of the building.” Some of the considerations for retrofitting existing buildings with these techniques include “structural retrofitting, material improvements, architectural considerations, engineering expertise, building codes and permits, cost considerations, phased approach, seismic evaluation and integration of sustainable technologies,” he explains. “Operational challenges and issues vary from one building to another, and a customized approach is often necessary to achieve desired seismic and sustainability goals while minimizing disruption to building occupants,” he notes.

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Anticipating aftershocks

Stanford University researchers have developed an artificial intelligence model that can predict aftershocks after an earthquake with more than 80 percent accuracy.

The model was trained on a dataset of more than 700,000 earthquakes from around the world, and it was able to identify patterns in more complex data that traditional methods could not detect, the researchers report.

The model works by analyzing seismic activity data sources, geological data and machine learning algorithms to identify patterns and trends associated with the occurrence of earthquakes. It can predict the size and timing of a setback. The model is still under development, but it can be a valuable predictive tool that can improve the accuracy and timeliness of aftershock warnings and help save lives and property.

The Japanese DLEPM model was trained on a dataset of over 10 million global seismic events (Shutterstock).

High precision Japanese model

Scientists at the University of Tokyo have succeeded in developing a model called Deep Learning Earthquake Prediction Model (DLEPM) that can predict with high accuracy by analyzing seismic activity patterns. The model was trained on a dataset of over 10 million seismic events from around the world. DLEPM analyzes a variety of data sources, including geographic data and machine learning algorithms. Japanese university researchers say it has proven to be very accurate in predicting. It is 80 percent successful in predicting magnitude 6 or greater earthquakes within a week of their occurrence.

“DLEPM” is still under development, but its potential is not limited to saving lives and property, but improving researchers’ understanding of earthquake processes and how and why they occur to develop new strategies to prevent them and mitigate their effects.

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Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States is developing an artificial intelligence model that could help predict earthquakes (Shutterstock)

Prediction of crack friction

Another AI model that can predict future fault friction is called the Deep Learning Fault Friction Model (DLFFM), developed by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the US.

Trained on a dataset of more than one million laboratory earthquakes, the model analyzes various data sources to identify patterns and trends associated with fault friction. They can be used to predict future friction at a given location, and how friction will change over time. DLFFM is still under development, but could be a valuable tool for improving the accuracy and timeliness of earthquake warnings.

Kengo Kuma, a Japanese architect, used carbon fiber to stabilize buildings and protect them from earthquakes (Shutterstock)

The innovative Japanese method

Japan is located on the Pacific “Ring of Fire” and is known for frequent seismic activity, prompting the design and construction of earthquake-resistant buildings.

An architectural firm affiliated with Kengo Kuma used carbon fiber to stabilize buildings and protect them from earthquakes. These materials are made from thermoplastic carbon fiber, a material with amazing tensile strength that rivals traditional building materials like steel. The innovation provides additional reinforcement to the building structure as carbon fiber ropes extend through a metal frame above the eco-friendly roof and then drop down the sides to reach the ground. Carbon fibres, separated in curtain-like fashion, form doors that lead to interior spaces draped over time and covered in white fabric.

The Stanford model works by analyzing seismic and geological data sources and machine learning algorithms (Shutterstock).

Cost of earthquake resistant buildings

Earthquake-resistant technologies can have a significant impact on the overall cost of a construction project. While these technologies are essential to ensure a building’s safety and resilience during seismic events, they can also add cost to a project. Architect Muhammad Obaid, founder and CEO of Imcon Architecture and Engineering Consulting, explains in an exclusive interview with Asharq Al-Awsad, “The degree of this influence depends on various factors, including specific technologies, the location of the project, the type of building and the level of seismic hazards. “Earthquake He believes that resisting technologies, materials and components, complexity of structural design, special systems, foundation systems, quality control and inspection, architectural modifications, seismic retrofits, local building codes, and degree of seismic risk affect construction costs. Project size and complexity and maintenance and life cycle costs.

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While earthquake-resistant technologies add upfront construction costs, they also lead to long-term benefits. Architect Muhammad Obaid says, “These benefits include increased safety, lower repair and reconstruction costs after an earthquake, and a possible reduction in insurance premiums. Some regions offer incentives or subsidies to cover the initial costs of incorporating earthquake-resistant technologies.” Generally, building an earthquake-resistant building costs more than a conventional building. According to architect Muhammad Obaid, this cost is “10 percent to 30 percent more than the cost of building a conventional building.”

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The most dangerous of them is the “breath of the dead” … Bad breath is a symptom of these serious diseases



The most dangerous of them is the “breath of the dead” … Bad breath is a symptom of these serious diseases

Some metabolic disorders can cause bad breath due to various problems in the intestines, blood or liver.

The following are the most important medical conditions that can cause complications:


  • A common condition that causes bad breath in the mouth and throat is diabetes because high glucose levels can cause the growth of harmful bacteria.
  • Because people with diabetes have insulin problems, cells may not get the glucose they need for energy, and instead the body starts burning fat-forming compounds called ketones.
  • Ketones accumulate in the blood and urine and cause bad breath.
  • One of these ketones is acetone, and it can cause breath to smell like nail polish.
  • If someone with diabetes notices the smell, they should seek medical advice as it could be due to diabetic ketoacidosis, a life-threatening condition.

Liver disease

  • If a person’s breath has a strong, foul smell, this is a sign that the liver is not filtering out toxins.
  • Doctors call this distinctive smell “the breath of the dead” because of its association with severe and fatal liver disease.

Kidney disease

  • Chronic kidney disease is a condition in which the kidneys are damaged and cannot filter the blood properly, which is why excess fluids and waste from the blood can build up in the body and cause other health problems such as heart disease and stroke.
  • People with kidney failure may develop bad breath.
  • As the kidneys begin to fail, the metabolic urea cannot be excreted effectively in the urine, and it accumulates in the blood and saliva.
  • The body converts urea into ammonia, which causes bitterness in the mouth and bad breath.
  • One in three people on dialysis say their breath smells like urine.
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Too much methionine in the blood

  • It is an increase in a specific protein building block (amino acid) called methionine in the blood.
  • People with this condition often have no symptoms, but if their breath, sweat, or urine smells like boiled cabbage, they should see a doctor.

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