Saturday, July 13, 2024

Why don’t black holes engulf the entire universe? A confusing explanation | Scientist


As black holes blow from within over time, so does the universe as it expands.

Black holes have a gravitational pull so that even light cannot escape. That is why black holes cannot be seen, but scientists use space telescopes equipped with special equipment to detect them. Its existence can be inferred by observing its strong gravitational effect on the stars approaching it.

Scientists believe that the size of black holes varies greatly, and that their smallest size does not exceed the size of atoms, although its mass may be equal to the mass of a high mountain. There are also stellar mass black holes, which may be 20 times larger than the Sun. A single galaxy, such as our Milky Way galaxy, may have many stellar black holes.

There are black holes with star mass that is 20 times larger than the mass of the Sun (shutterstock).

Suskint and Super Strings

Considering the ability of black holes to swallow everything they dare to approach, can black holes expand and swell and drown the entire universe?

In 2018, a solution to this confusing black hole mystery was offered, with Leonard Susskind, a physicist professor of theoretical physics at Stanford University, known for his pioneering research on super string theory.

Susskind based his description on the principle of super string, which is made up of one-dimensional strings, everything in the universe, every particle and every object. The mode of vibration of these strings is determined by the mass of the object, its charge and some other properties. According to this theory, elementary particles are a reflection of the vibrations of these one-dimensional strings.

Cow A statement Suskind, published in a scientific warning, suggested that black holes extend inward rather than outward. This feature is not visible from a distance. When viewed from the outside, these mysterious, invisible balls seem to have a fixed size, while they swell and grow from the inside to infinity, how is that possible?

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The effect of massive objects in space is similar to the effect of a heavy ball on an elongated cloth (NASA).

General theory of relativity

The general theory of relativity, developed by Albert Einstein, predicted the existence of black holes over a century ago. It assumes that a black hole is saturated enough to distort space and time.

Einstein developed the general theory of relativity to explain the force of gravity we see between people, because there are common bodies, and a curve occurs in four-dimensional space. This curve controls the movement of objects in space.

But Einstein’s equations cannot explain it because the gravity in black holes is so close to their centers. Although the size of the black hole does not appear to change from the outside, it enlarges and grows from the inside when new objects or objects fall into it.

To simplify the concept, imagine that according to Einstein’s theory, a black hole is a funnel or cone in the middle of a two – dimensional rubber sheet. The funnel grows deep, slightly, without expanding outwards, so that the bodies that fall into it never reach the bottom. Black holes, however, expand inward from all three directions. It is surrounded by a circular boundary called the “event horizon”.

In his book, The War of Black Holes, Saskind documented his scientific argument with Hawking (al-Jazeera).

Battle of the black holes

In the seventies of the last century, Stephen Hawking, a British physicist, discovered that black holes emit heat, and considered that this radiation leads to their evaporation and contraction, thus causing the loss of information that falls on these cosmic black holes.

However, Hawking’s theory conflicts with the laws of quantum mechanics, which states that the universe holds all the information about the past. The Black Hole War is a real scientific debate between scientists. Quantum mechanics.

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The controversy arose as a result of the “hologram principle” theory developed by Gerard Hofft, which assumes that the information of all objects falling into black holes is stored in the superficial fluctuations of the event horizon. The theory also states that gravity comes from thin strings that are three-dimensional reflections of a two-dimensional flat universe.

For decades, researchers have occupied the relationship between the size of black holes and the information in them (pixap).

The calculation is complex

The relationship between the surface of black holes and the information contained in them has occupied researchers for decades. Some scientists can predict the magnitude of the “computational problem” – that is, the number of calculations needed to recover the first quantum state of black holes when they first appeared – and the amount of change that occurred in them.

This is because the particles inside the black holes interact with each other, trapping stored information about their initial state, making the black holes more complex. Susskind proved that black holes grow at the same rate of size and complexity, perhaps due to one another.

If we consider that the computational complexity is the cause of black hole swelling, Suskint expects that this hypothesis will affect our understanding of the universe in general, A statement It was published by “The Atlantic” magazine, “As black holes expand from the inside out over time, the universe expands.”

“It is very interesting to me whether the expansion of the universe is related to the increase of the computational problem, and whether the cosmic clock, i.e. the origin of the universe, is related to the development of the computational complex. I do not know the answer yet.”

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Nadia Barnett
Nadia Barnett
"Award-winning beer geek. Extreme coffeeaholic. Introvert. Avid travel specialist. Hipster-friendly communicator."

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