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40 million years older than thought



40 million years older than thought

Shafaq News/ University of Chicago researchers have been able to determine the moon’s age at no less than 4.46 billion years by analyzing its rocks, which is 40 million years older than previously thought.

In a study published in the journal “Geochemical Perspectives Letters,” scientists sought a unique source, crystals extracted from the lunar surface by Apollo astronauts during their historic missions, specifically from the “Apollo 17” mission. In the year 1972.

Some of the oldest rocks in the Solar System, these crystal deposits contain important evidence that could help scientists re-determine the Moon’s age. By analyzing the isotopic composition of the rocks, researchers were able to confidently determine the age. the moon

“The crystals act as an hourglass used to determine the age of the Moon,” said University of Chicago researcher Philen Heck, lead author of the study.

The lunar dust sample used in the study was brought back by astronauts on the Apollo 17 mission, the last manned mission to the moon, in 1972, and the dust contains tiny crystals that formed billions of years ago, a clear sign of history. Creation of the Moon.

The study said, “When the collision occurred and the Moon formed, the energy of the collision melted the rocks and eventually formed the surface of the Moon. Thus when the surface melts, zircon crystals cannot form, so no crystals form on the Moon. The surface must have formed.” After the lunar magma ocean cooled, otherwise, they would have melted and their chemical signature would have been destroyed,” the researchers said.

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The researchers added: “Since the crystals must have formed after the magma ocean cooled, determining the age of the zircon crystals could reveal the minimum age of the Moon.”

The researchers used an analytical method called atomic probe tomography, a powerful analytical technique used in materials science and nanotechnology to study the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level. The material allows researchers to understand its chemical composition.

Using this method, scientists were able to determine the age of the oldest known lunar crystal, after an atom-by-atom analysis showed the number of atoms within zircon crystals that had undergone radioactive decay.

When an atom has an unstable configuration of protons and neutrons in its nucleus, it decays, removing some protons and neutrons and changing into different elements. For example, uranium decays into lead.

The scientists determined how long the process took, and by looking at the ratio of different uranium and lead atoms (called isotopes) in the sample, they were able to determine its age.

The researchers explained, “Radioactive dating is like an hourglass, in which sand flows from one glass bulb to another, and over time, the sand accumulates in the lower bulb. Radioactive dating works similarly by counting the number of original atoms. The number of atoms that have replaced them.” Since the rate of change is known, the time course can be calculated.

The lead isotope ratio found by the researchers indicates that the sample is about 4.46 billion years old, which is at least the age of the Moon.

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The researchers emphasized the importance of knowing when the Moon formed; Because it is “a key player in our planetary system, it works to stabilize the Earth’s axis of rotation, it’s the reason we have a 24-hour system, it causes tides, and without it, life on Earth would have been different, so it’s part of our natural system that we better understand.” We want to understand.” Better”.

Over the ages, the origin of the Moon has puzzled scientists, and countless theories and speculations have emerged. The current theory, known as the “giant impact theory,” posits the birth of the solar system 4 billion years ago. , a large body about the size of Mars collided with Earth, and this catastrophic collision led to the formation of the Moon by splitting off a large part of the Earth, creating the Moon, a satellite subject to Earth’s gravity.

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A precise analysis sequence of the universe’s 13.7 billion years… from “explosion” to “cold death”.



A precise analysis sequence of the universe’s 13.7 billion years… from “explosion” to “cold death”.

Box News – Latest – Today we talk about the exact analysis sequence of 13.7 billion years of the universe … from “explosion” to “cold death” sparking a lot of interest and controversy on social networking sites. Discuss in detail the precise analytical sequence of 13.7 billion years. From the Age of the Universe … From “Explosion” to “Cold Death” This article is part of a series of articles usually published by Box News.

A special science magazine, Interesting Engineering, presents a complete and concise view of the history of the universe from its beginning to the present era. Visions can vary and be criticized based on the discoveries that occur daily in the field of space science.

The beginning of the explosion

Scientists believed that the universe began at this time, 13.7 billion years ago, and there was a big bang. Various space missions have produced estimates related to the age of the universe, since the Planck mission, especially in the period from 2009 to 2013, according to data from the European Space Agency. The age of the universe was estimated at 13.82 billion years, but a recent estimate from observations by the Atacama Telescope in Chile puts it at 13.77 billion years old.

The second phase of the universe’s life is the creation of atoms, scientific theories suggest that subatomic particles including (electrons and neutrons) formed 6 to 10 seconds after the Big Bang, amid scientists’ beliefs that the universe began to cool (protons and neutrons).

For 380 million years, nothing disturbing or significant happened, while some elements combined to form helium atoms.

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In the third phase, as atoms begin to form, energy is released in the form of light, known as the “cosmic microwave background.” This led to the absorption of free electrons to make the universe dark. , and so there is no scattering of light.

Dark times

About 400 million years after the Big Bang, the so-called “Dark Ages” appeared, the “Age of Reionization,” a period in which the universe went through a dynamic phase that is believed to have lasted for a billion years. In life, observations showed that reionization could have occurred quickly and suddenly. Scientists knew that during that period, gas first formed stars and galaxies.

The fourth stage is that the first star is called Methuselah or HD 140283, and it is considered the oldest in the universe, because it is located about 190.1 light years from Earth and is in equilibrium, and its age is about 13 billion years, which is close to the age of the universe.

The story of the birth of the first two constellations

During the fifth phase, the first two galaxies were born, and in July 2021, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) captured an image of a galaxy called GLASS-z13, which formed about 300 to 400 million years after the Big Bang.

The James Webb Space Telescope found another early galaxy called GLASS-z11, and the research confirmed that, based on the mass of a billion suns, the two galaxies must be about 500 million years old.

milky way

As for the story of the Milky Way, it is believed that the Milky Way Galaxy formed when large clouds of gas and dust gathered under the force of gravity. When a dense, bright disk appears.

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Recent research indicates that these theories are more complex and not simple, including multiple collisions and mergers with smaller galaxies, data from the Gaia space observatory revealed some of the oldest stars expected to be found in the galaxy. The halo is, in fact, present in the disk, indicating that the history of stellar motion and galaxy formation is very complex.

According to the results, the Milky Way Galaxy is not static, having evolved over billions of years except by gravitational interactions and mergers with other star systems.

According to some astronomers, the Milky Way Galaxy and the “neighboring” Andromeda Galaxy are scheduled to collide after about 5 billion years.

The result is cold death

Cold Death Comes in the Final Scene According to scientific evidence, the Big Freeze or Heat Death is a clear scenario of the end of the universe as the universe expands indefinitely and eventually reaches absolute zero temperature.

Evaporating black holes, known as “Hawking radiation,” stop star formation and burn out existing stars.

In one of the theories on the subject, he confirmed the “Big Crunch”, a theory that believes that the universe collapsed into a hot and dense state and caused a big bang, although this theory is interesting, should not be imagined. What happens when humans run out of time?

At the end of our article, if you have any suggestions or comments about the news, don’t hesitate to write us. We appreciate your feedback and strive to improve the site to meet your needs and meet your aspirations. Thank you for visiting us, we wish you a pleasant and productive time with us.

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It is expected to announce Windows 12 in the second half of 2024



It is expected to announce Windows 12 in the second half of 2024

This topic was written by Sultan Al-Qahtani – Software giant Microsoft is preparing to launch a new version of the Windows operating system, and recent expectations indicate that Microsoft is preparing to release the Windows 12 update in the second half of 2024. .

Microsoft is working on a new version of the Windows operating system, known by the “Hudson Valley” logo, and leaks from multiple sources have confirmed that the Windows 12 update aims to focus specifically on artificial intelligence technology.

The company has already started previewing the “Hudson Valley” update, which will later be released under the title Windows 12, via “Windows Insider” in preparation for the release of the RTM model in April 2024.

This version mainly focuses on improving the user experience with artificial intelligence technology, with features like “Windows Shell” and assistant with artificial intelligence technology, a digital assistant that works continuously on the back screen.

The digital assistant is expected to support improving search functions and launching applications, and artificial intelligence will also work to improve system management with smoother performance when integrated deep into the operating system through new NPU devices to achieve optimal performance.

Expectations also indicate that new standards will be required for computers to be compatible with new artificial intelligence technology, and the proportion of devices equipped with artificial intelligence technology is expected to rise to 81% by 2027.


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Bieber Brings “iMessage” to Android Devices Due to Apple’s Privacy Infringement



Bieber Brings “iMessage” to Android Devices Due to Apple’s Privacy Infringement

Sunday 10 December 2023 / 13:04

Weeks after the failure of the NothingChats and Sunbird apps, the app Paper Mini announced the possibility of using iMessage for Android devices due to concerns about the privacy of users of Messages, an instant messaging service only available on Apple devices., a website specializing in technology topics, notes that the Pepper Mini application is a successor to the original Pepper application, now named Pepper Cloud.

Like the original Sunbird or Paper applications, the Paper Mini application connects directly to the iMessage network without requiring a permanent connection to Apple Mac Mini devices. Therefore, the Pepper Mini does not require an Apple ID, although having this ID will allow the user to access the iMessage service via the Pepper Mini and Apple devices such as Macs and iPads.
Pepper says it supports several key features of iMessage using methods such as end-to-end message encryption, typing indicators, replying to posts and group chats.

Pepper was developed independently of Apple, and it is impossible to continue to offer all the features that Apple offers to iMessage users on iPhone smartphones and other devices manufactured by the American company.
Meanwhile, the original Pepper app has a waiting list of users who want to access it.

Original Pepper allows you to access the iMessage service using any Mac device while connected to another messaging app, such as WhatsApp.

Pepper Mini can be downloaded from Google’s Play Store without waiting, but the developer gets a $2 monthly subscription after a 7-day free trial period.

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