Wednesday, February 28, 2024

6 historical mysteries that scientists will solve in 2023, which has kept its secrets for decades


The efforts of researchers in 2023 allowed solving many mysteries related to previous archaeological discoveries, the secrets of which were kept secret for decades. Thanks to the efforts of artificial intelligence and other technologies, these ancient objects have revealed some of their secrets, which may open the door for scientists to uncover ancient secrets.

6 Historical Mysteries Solved in 2023, Tracked by CNN

“important person”
According to Al Hurrah TV, it was finally revealed this year that a 5,000-year-old skeleton buried with a crystal dagger and other valuable artifacts in a cemetery near Seville, Spain in 2008 was once an important figure.

The remains were originally believed to belong to a young man based on analysis of the pelvis, the traditional method by which scientists determine the gender of a human skeleton, but analysis of the teeth revealed that the skeleton belonged. A woman.

The discovery dispelled the idea, held for more than two decades, that the structure belonged to a “hunter-man,” which fueled many theories about early humans.

“We believe this technology will open a new era in the analysis of the social organization of prehistoric societies,” Leonardo Garcia Sanjuan, a professor of prehistoric studies at the University of Seville, told CNN when the discovery was made.

The secret of the strength of Roman concrete
Roman concrete has proven to last longer than its modern counterpart, which can deteriorate within decades.

For example, the Pantheon in Rome, which includes the largest unsupported dome in the world, remains tall despite the passage of hundreds of years since its construction.

In a study published in January, scientists said they discovered a mysterious element that allowed the Romans to make their building materials more durable and create elaborate structures in difficult locations such as docks, sewers and earthquake zones.

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The team examined 2,000-year-old concrete samples taken from a city wall at the archaeological site of Privernum in central Italy, a mixture similar to other concrete found throughout the Roman Empire.

The researchers found that the white particles in the concrete, referred to as lime chips, give the concrete the ability to heal cracks that develop over time.

White bits were previously overlooked because researchers believed they were the result of sloppy mixing or poor quality raw materials.

Otzi the Snowman
Odzi's body was found in the Italian Alps in 1991.

Its frozen remains are the most closely studied archaeological find in the world, revealing in unprecedented detail what life was like 5,300 years ago.

The contents of his stomach gave information about what his last meal was and where he came from, while his arms showed that he was right-handed, and his clothes gave a rare impression of what his ancestors wore.

But a new analysis of DNA extracted from Ötzi's pelvis revealed last August that his physical appearance was not what scientists initially thought.

A study of his genetic makeup showed that Ötzi (the Snowman) had dark skin and dark eyes and was probably bald.

This appearance contrasts with earlier depictions of Ötzi, which depicted him as a light-skinned man with a full head of hair and beard.

“Owner of the Necklace”
Earlier this year, scientists recovered ancient human DNA from a deer bone necklace found in Denisova Cave in Siberia.

This evidence was able to reveal what was worn by a woman who lived between 19,000 and 25,000 years ago.

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The woman belonged to a group known as the Ancient North Eurasians, which is genetically related to early Americans.

Human DNA was well preserved in this deer bone medallion, which helped identify it as belonging to a woman from the period.

The Herculaneum Manuscripts
In the 18th century AD, some adventurers managed to find the largest known library from antiquity, containing manuscripts of unknown meaning, which experts called the “Herculaneum Manuscripts”.

These fragile documents remained a mystery until Luke Variter, a computer science student at the University of Nebraska, deciphered a word written in ancient Greek on one of those black scrolls with the help of artificial intelligence.

Variator received a $40,000 prize for deciphering the word “πορφυρας” or “porphyras,” the Greek word for purple.

The researchers hope to be able to decipher entire coils using this technique.

Embalming materials
Scientists have discovered some of the ingredients and compounds used by the ancient Egyptians to mummify the dead through the remains of pots left in a mummification workshop.

Through chemical analysis of the organic remains left on the vessels, the researchers determined that the ancient Egyptians used a wide range of substances to anoint the body after death, reduce unpleasant odors, and protect against fungi, bacteria, and rot.

Mummification…a Mysterious Baronic Secret
Among the substances identified are vegetable oils such as juniper, cypress and cedar, as well as resins from pistachio trees, animal fats and beeswax.

Although scholars previously knew the names of the materials used to mummify the dead from Egyptian texts, they could only guess at the composition.

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The materials used were diverse and were sourced not only from Egypt but also from further afield, suggesting long-distance exchange of goods.

Rolf Colon
Rolf Colon
"Creator. Award-winning problem solver. Music evangelist. Incurable introvert."

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