The Nobel Prize in Physics has effectively contributed to the promotion of scientific discoveries in the field of physics, discoveries that have changed the face of mankind in various aspects of its existence. Here are sixteen memorable discoveries.
1901: X-rays show the bones
The first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Wilhelm Conrad Rondgen after his discovery of X-rays. To date, doctors use his findings to identify broken bones or radiculitis. But these high energy rays can cause cancer. Although “Röntgen” called it X-rays, scientists later named him in his honor.
1903: Atoms decompose spontaneously
The French physicist “Antoine-Henri Becquerel” discovered the atomic decay of the nuclei of some heavy metals, such as uranium, which are clearly visible in the film. Meanwhile, the nuclei emit high energy radiation. Thus, Beckley discovered radiation. Marie Curie and her husband Pierre carefully examined the event. All three were subsequently awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.
1921: Strength of the beam
Eliminate small particles from a piece of metal. Albert Einstein studied this photovoltaic effect in more detail. He explained it this way: light and matter are two sides of the same coin and they are interchangeable. Therefore, rays of light have the ability to transform metal. Our solar cells today are based on this principle.
1956: Origin of modern computers
Today we are indebted to Americans William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Protein for discovering the foundations on which to build smartphone, laptop and iPad technologies. They were the first to invent electronic circuit transistors that could switch from one state to another at lightning speed. Today’s computer processors, as shown in the picture above, number in the millions of these circuits. As for this coin, it is only for size comparison.
1964: Super Beams of Light
Multiple identical beams that shoot in the same direction, which is the simplified definition of the laser, which makes it possible to enjoy light shots and cut hard metals and remove diseased skin patches. The American “Charles Downs” and the Russians “Nikolai Pasov” and “Alexander Prokorov” received the Nobel Prize for their discovery.
1967: Hell of the Stars
Born in Germany, Hans Albrecht Bethe, born in Strasbourg, explored the reason why stars, like our sun, are actually so hot, to discover that stars combine hydrogen atoms in their helium atoms. This nuclear fusion releases a lot of the energy that reaches our blue planet in the form of solar radiation.
1971: Stunning 3D scenes
Holographic or 3D imaging credited to Hungarian engineer “Denis Kepor”. He first gave these three-dimensional images. These holograms appear to float freely in space and change depending on the viewing angle. But this is not a pretty trick, the 3D images on the coins make the counterfeit hard.
1986: Shows invisible to the naked eye
The German “Ernst Ruska” gave us with his invention an insight into the world of infinite things and micro-organisms. Ruska invented the electron microscope, which allows for a thousand times greater image resolution than that of ordinary optical microscopes. Thanks to Roska we can see everything hidden from our eyes by her little character.
1988: Basic nanoparticles
Yes, there are neutrinos! This was confirmed by the Americans “Leon Max Leatherman”, “Melvin Swartz” and “Jack Steinberger” through their experiments on particle accelerators. Neutrons are the basic particles of matter that are much smaller in mass than the mass of an electron and have no electrical charge. The problem is, it does not interact with the material on our planet. Accordingly, proving its existence in tests remains a very complex matter
1989: Accurate timing
American physicist Norman Ramsay laid the foundation for the most accurate measurement of time, which made it possible to create the world’s most accurate atomic clock. In a year, a clock deviates from the moment we know more than 25 billion in a second. There are four atomic clocks in Brunswick, Germany. In Germany it is officially timed.
2007: Store large data in the smallest possible space
Laptop hard drives are getting smaller every year, but at the same time their data storage capacity is increasing. This is possible due to the huge magnetic resistance, which arises when the storage medium is prepared in a certain way. This effect was discovered by the German “Peter Greenberg” and the French “Albert Wert”, for which they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.
2009: Browse faster
Charles Quinn Cao, a Sino-American physicist, developed a fiber-optic cable that transmits information, such as the content of a website or a telephone conversation, quickly and without loss. For this purpose, electronic data is converted into ultrasonic flashes, transmitted through a fiber-optic cable, sent back to the target and returned in the form of electrical pulses.
2011: The universe continues to expand
American researchers “Saul Perlmutter”, “Brian Schmidt” and “Adam Reese” showed that the universe is expanding. Science cannot explain exactly why. But whoever discovers this, he certainly deserves the Nobel Prize in Physics.
2013: Higgs particle
Nearly 50 years ago, the young physicist Peter Hicks described an important particle. This gives their mass to all the other elementary particles. Peter Hicks and his Belgian colleague Franோois Englert theoretically predicted this particle. Only in 2012 was it demonstrated by the European Center for Nuclear Research near Geneva.
2014: “Calium nitride diode” emitting blue light
Scientists Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura have been awarded the Nobel Prize for their creation of blue light emitting LEDs. This makes white LEDs brighter and more energy-efficient light source compared to other lights.
2018: Ultra-short laser pulses and optical tweezers
Lasers have become an essential part of our lives. Canadian Dona Theo Strickland and Frenchman Gerrard Albert Morey laid the foundation for ultra-pulsed lasers in their research. Thanks to these nuts, products can be processed with extreme precision.
The two shared the Nobel Prize for using Arthur Ashkin’s optical tweezers and lasers for biological systems. It detects viruses and bacteria and deals with them without causing harm.
Source: Deutsche Welle (DW) German website.
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