January 28, 2022

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The most important facts and information about the planet Earth in 13 questions |  Science

The most important facts and information about the planet Earth in 13 questions | Science

Earth is the fifth largest planet in our solar system and the third farthest from the Sun. The Earth is about 150 million kilometers from the Sun.

Planet Earth differs from all other planets in our solar system in its many benefits, including the abundance of oxygen in the atmosphere and the liquid water on its surface, both of which are vital elements of life. Therefore, it is not surprising that Earth is the only planet on which living things live.

What are the elements of life on earth?

Represent Atmospheric oxygen is 21% and nitrogen 78%. Other gases such as carbon dioxide and argon make up only 1% of the atmosphere. The atmosphere affects the earth’s climate for a long time and protects us from harmful radiation from the sun. It also acts to protect us from meteorites, most of which burn up in the atmosphere before reaching the Earth’s surface.

Cover Water About 71% of the Earth’s surface, whether in liquid or ice form, allows water to remain in liquid form for long periods of time.

Water is found everywhere in the earth, in rivers, seas, ice and creatures, air and clouds and even underground. In fact, the vast oceans on Earth’s surface provided opportunities for life to form about 3.8 billion years ago.

Share A statement According to the World Bank, salt water is 97% of the total water on Earth’s surface, while freshwater is only 3% of Earth’s surface water.

Most fresh water is frozen in glaciers or glaciers. Fresh water, which is easily accessible to meet our needs, is only 1% of the earth’s surface water. Rainwater plays an essential role in the circulation of water on the earth’s surface.

What is the history of the origin of the earth?

Because the oldest rocks on the Earth’s surface are damaged by contact between tectonic plates or exposed to erosion and weather factors, scientists consider the Earth’s age to be that of Earth and other inanimate bodies compared to the age of the solar system. The solar system formed at the same time.

Share Body According to the US Geological Survey (USGS), the age of the Earth and therefore the solar system is 4.54 billion years, while the age of our Milky Way galaxy is 11 to 13 billion years.

Fear Scientists Earth, like all the planets in the solar system, began to orbit the dust and gas that orbit the sun. Then rocks are formed by the forces of gravity, and their size gradually increases until they become asteroids. Protoplanets formed after asteroids collide with each other.

What is the size of the earth?

Diameter of the Earth according to the American Space Research CenterNASA(NASA) 12,756 km. If you know that the diameter of the Earth at the equator is slightly different from the poles, the Earth is not completely spherical, but rather oval.

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The Earth weighs 5.9722 x 1024 kilograms, with an area of ​​510 million and 64 thousand 472 square kilometers. The circumference of the earth at the equator is 40 million 30 thousand two kilometers.

Some still believe that the earth is flat despite clear and detailed images (Al-Jazeera)

What is the geographical distribution of the population on Earth?

According to the United Nations Population Fund UNFPA, the world’s population is about 7.8 billion, 65% of whom are between the ages of 15 and 64.

According to Is expected According to statistics, 60% of the world’s population, or about 4.3 billion people, live in the Asia-Pacific region, 17.51% in Africa and 9.77% in Europe.

The share of Latin America and the Caribbean in the population does not exceed 8.37%. China is in second place with a population of 1.42 billion, followed by India with 1.35 billion.

Share Location According to statistics, our world is 4.75 billion people, or 62% of the world’s population, concentrated in 13 countries, including China, India, the United States, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Russia, Mexico, and Japan. Ethiopia and the Philippines.

Mount Simborazo summit closest to stars on Earth (Getty Images)

What are longitude and latitude?

Boss All over the earth there are imaginary horizontal lines called latitudes, which are parallel lines drawn on maps and globes. Each line is 110 km from the other. The latitude at point zero is called the equator.

Imaginary vertical lines called meridians run across the earth, but the meridians are not parallel. The lines of the longitude meet at the poles and differ greatly from the equator where the earth appears flat.

How does the earth rotate?

The Earth revolves around an imaginary axis that passes from the North Pole to the South Pole, and its rotation on its axis is 23 thousand 934 hours. AndIn conjunction with As it rotates on its axis, the Earth orbits the Sun, and a complete revolution around the Sun is 365 days and a quarter of a day. This extra quarter explains the existence of the leap year, because one day is added to the year every 4 years until the annual calendar coincides with the revolution of the earth around the sun.

The globe has 4 main layers, starting with the inner core and its temperature at 5400 செல் C (Getty Images)

What is the shape of the globe?

Despite the numerous and vivid images of the globe taken by spacecraft from space, the shape of the earth remains a matter of controversy in the 21st century. When confirming Some Greek philosophers have been proving that the earth is flat since 500 BC Location The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) says the Earth is spherical. Confirmed their theories Images Taken by astronauts and the planet’s satellites from a height that Greek philosophers never dreamed of.

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But even though the Earth appears to be spherical from space, it is, in fact, step Location The National Oceanic Research Corporation is closer to the oval shape than the spherical shape. The planet appears to be relatively flat at the equator due to centrifugal forces resulting from the Earth’s permanent rotation.

What is the composition of the earth?

The globe consists of 4 main layers, surrounded by the outer core, mantle and crust from the Earth’s inner core. The inner core consists of iron and nickel ores with a radius of 1221 km. And the temperature at the Earth’s inner core is 5400 degrees Celsius. As for the outer core layer covering the inner core, its thickness is 2,300 km, and this layer is in liquid form of iron and nickel.

Above the Earth’s outer core lies the mantle, a 2,900 km thick layer of Earth. The mantle is made of a mixture of hot sticky molten rock. The slow movement of mantle rocks causes the appearance of earthquakes, volcanoes and volcanoes.

Finally, it floats in the mantle layer of the Earth’s crust at a depth of 30 km. The crust of the earth is thin at the bottom of the oceans and its thickness should not exceed 8 km. The crust beneath the continents is made up of granite and other light minerals, while it forms at the bottom of the oceans from basalt.

Maximum temperature recorded in Death Valley in the United States in 1913 (Getty Images)

What is the highest and lowest temperature ever recorded on the Earth’s surface?

Precision last year System The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) issued a warning after temperatures in Russia reached 38 degrees Celsius on June 20, 2020, the highest temperature ever recorded in the Arctic.

In 2020 and 2021, Death Valley, California recorded temperatures of 54.4 degrees Celsius, known as the hottest part of the world. On the island of Sicily, a temperature of 48.8 degrees Celsius was reported.

And in 2012 Re The World Meteorological Organization recorded a record high of 58 degrees Celsius in 1922 in the Aziziya Desert in Libya, the highest temperature ever recorded on Earth’s surface.

The team in charge of checking the validity of the measurement found that it was inaccurate for a number of reasons, including the lack of instruments used to measure the temperature and the inexperience of the observer, and they assumed that he had recorded the reading incorrectly. With an increase of about 7 C.

Currently, according to Location According to Guinness World Records, the highest temperature ever recorded in the world was 56.7 degrees Celsius, recorded in 1913 in Death Valley, California. In 1991, the lowest temperature ever recorded in the Arctic Circle was 69.9 degrees below zero. Percentage.

What was the name of the first ship around the world?

In 1519, Go ahead The Portuguese sailor Ferdinand Magellan explored the western route to the spicy eastern Andes during his famous voyage. The cruise ships sailed across the Pacific Ocean, and Magellan discovered a strait in South America, later called the “Magellan Strait” after the Portuguese explorer. But Magellan was half killed by a tribe on an island in the Philippines.

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Although Magellan was the brainchild of his first trip around the world, fate did not allow him to travel around the world completely. The crew of the ships on the campaign continued the voyage without him.

In 1522, a cruise ship reached Spain and successfully completed an entire world tour. The captain of the ship “Victoria” was Juan Sebastian Ilango, who accepted command of the voyage after Magellan’s assassination on his way back to Spain in 1521. In fact, Elanco was the first European to complete a full circle around the world.

But Ilango was not the first person to complete an entire world tour. Then Historians They confirm that Enrique, a Malaysian slave who was captured by Magellan from Malaysia in 1511 and returned to Europe with him, was the first person to travel around the world. Enrique and Magellan had previously traveled west from Asia to Europe. In other words, Enrique traveled the world long and wide for many years.

The Hanging Skeleton of the Blue Whale, the largest living creature on Earth (Getty Images)

Which is the largest living creature on Earth?

Blue whale, According to The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) in Antarctica is the largest animal on the planet, weighing 400,000 tons and 98 feet long. Its heart is the size of a small car. It uses 7,936 tons of grill per day. The blue whale is the loudest living creature on earth with a noise level of 188 decibels.

Which is the heaviest object on earth?

Counting element விஞ்சிமம் The heaviest metal on earth. This metal is twice as dense as lead. Each liter of osmium weighs 22.6 kilograms and each liter of water weighs one kilogram.

Which is the deepest and highest point on the earth’s surface?

Is there Deep A point on the Earth’s surface at the southern tip of the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean is called the Challenger Deep. The depth of this point is 36,200 feet or 11 thousand meters.

Such as More Contrary to what most people think, Mount Everest is not, but the peak of Simborazo Peak in Ecuador is at the back of the planet. Situated close to the equator, the mountain appears to be relatively flat, with its summit being the closest point to the stars on Earth. The highest mountain on Earth is the Mauna Kia volcano in Hawaii, which rises to 33,500 feet from its base to its summit.